Section: (1)


youtube-dl - download videos from or other video platforms 


B]youtube-dl] [OPTIONS] URL [URL...] 


B]youtube-dl] is a command-line program to download videos and a few more sites.It requires the Python interpreter, version 2.6, 2.7, or 3.2+, and it isnot platform specific.It should work on your Unix box, on Windows or on macOS.It is released to the public domain, which means you can modify it,redistribute it or use it however you like. 


-h, --help
Print this help text and exit
Print program version and exit
-U, --update
Update this program to latest version.Make sure that you have sufficient permissions (run with sudo if needed)
-i, --ignore-errors
Continue on download errors, for example to skip unavailable videos in aplaylist
Abort downloading of further videos (in the playlist or the commandline) if an error occurs
Display the current browser identification
List all supported extractors
Output descriptions of all supported extractors
Force extraction to use the generic extractor
--default-search I]PREFIX]
Use this prefix for unqualified URLs.For example "gvsearch2:" downloads two videos from google videos foryoutube- dl "large apple".Use the value "auto" to let youtube-dl guess ("auto_warning" to emit awarning when guessing)."error" just throws an error.The default value "fixup_error" repairs broken URLs, but emits an errorif this is not possible instead of searching.
Do not read configuration files.When given in the global configuration file /etc/youtube-dl.conf: Donot read the user configuration in ~/.config/youtube-dl/config(%APPDATA%/youtube-dl/config.txt on Windows)
--config-location I]PATH]
Location of the configuration file; either the path to the config or itscontaining directory.
Do not extract the videos of a playlist, only list them.
Mark videos watched (YouTube only)
Do not mark videos watched (YouTube only)
Do not emit color codes in output

Network Options:

--proxy I]URL]
Use the specified HTTP/HTTPS/SOCKS proxy.To enable SOCKS proxy, specify a proper scheme.For example socks5:// in an empty string (--proxy "") for direct connection
--socket-timeout I]SECONDS]
Time to wait before giving up, in seconds
--source-address I]IP]
Client-side IP address to bind to
-4, --force-ipv4
Make all connections via IPv4
-6, --force-ipv6
Make all connections via IPv6

Geo Restriction:

--geo-verification-proxy I]URL]
Use this proxy to verify the IP address for some geo-restricted sites.The default proxy specified by --proxy (or none, if the option is notpresent) is used for the actual downloading.
Bypass geographic restriction via faking X-Forwarded-For HTTP header
Do not bypass geographic restriction via faking X-Forwarded-For HTTPheader
--geo-bypass-country I]CODE]
Force bypass geographic restriction with explicitly provided two-letterISO 3166-2 country code
--geo-bypass-ip-block I]IP_BLOCK]
Force bypass geographic restriction with explicitly provided IP block inCIDR notation

Video Selection:

--playlist-start I]NUMBER]
Playlist video to start at (default is 1)
--playlist-end I]NUMBER]
Playlist video to end at (default is last)
--playlist-items I]ITEM_SPEC]
Playlist video items to download.Specify indices of the videos in the playlist separated by commas like:"-- playlist-items 1,2,5,8" if you want to download videos indexed 1,2, 5, 8 in the playlist.You can specify range: " --playlist-items 1-3,7,10-13", it willdownload the videos at index 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 13.
--match-title I]REGEX]
Download only matching titles (regex or caseless sub-string)
--reject-title I]REGEX]
Skip download for matching titles (regex or caseless sub-string)
--max-downloads I]NUMBER]
Abort after downloading NUMBER files
--min-filesize I]SIZE]
Do not download any videos smaller than SIZE (e.g.50k or 44.6m)
--max-filesize I]SIZE]
Do not download any videos larger than SIZE (e.g.50k or 44.6m)
--date I]DATE]
Download only videos uploaded in this date
--datebefore I]DATE]
Download only videos uploaded on or before this date (i.e.inclusive)
--dateafter I]DATE]
Download only videos uploaded on or after this date (i.e.inclusive)
--min-views I]COUNT]
Do not download any videos with less than COUNT views
--max-views I]COUNT]
Do not download any videos with more than COUNT views
--match-filter I]FILTER]
Generic video filter.Specify any key (see the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for a list of available keys)to match if the key is present, !key to check if the key is not present,key > NUMBER (like "comment_count > 12", also works with >=, <, <=, !=,=) to compare against a number, key = [aq]LITERAL[aq] (like "uploader= [aq]Mike Smith[aq]", also works with !=) to match against a stringliteral and & to require multiple matches.Values which are not known are excluded unless you put a question mark(?) after the operator.For example, to only match videos that have been liked more than 100times and disliked less than 50 times (or the dislike functionality isnot available at the given service), but who also have a description,use --match-filter "like_count > 100 & dislike_count <?50 & description" .
Download only the video, if the URL refers to a video and a playlist.
Download the playlist, if the URL refers to a video and a playlist.
--age-limit I]YEARS]
Download only videos suitable for the given age
--download-archive I]FILE]
Download only videos not listed in the archive file.Record the IDs of all downloaded videos in it.
Download advertisements as well (experimental)

Download Options:

-r, --limit-rate I]RATE]
Maximum download rate in bytes per second (e.g.50K or 4.2M)
-R, --retries I]RETRIES]
Number of retries (default is 10), or "infinite".
--fragment-retries I]RETRIES]
Number of retries for a fragment (default is 10), or "infinite" (DASH,hlsnative and ISM)
Skip unavailable fragments (DASH, hlsnative and ISM)
Abort downloading when some fragment is not available
Keep downloaded fragments on disk after downloading is finished;fragments are erased by default
--buffer-size I]SIZE]
Size of download buffer (e.g.1024 or 16K) (default is 1024)
Do not automatically adjust the buffer size.By default, the buffer size is automatically resized from an initialvalue of SIZE.
--http-chunk-size I]SIZE]
Size of a chunk for chunk-based HTTP downloading (e.g.10485760 or 10M) (default is disabled).May be useful for bypassing bandwidth throttling imposed by a webserver(experimental)
Download playlist videos in reverse order
Download playlist videos in random order
Set file xattribute ytdl.filesize with expected file size
Use the native HLS downloader instead of ffmpeg
Use ffmpeg instead of the native HLS downloader
Use the mpegts container for HLS videos, allowing to play the videowhile downloading (some players may not be able to play it)
--external-downloader I]COMMAND]
Use the specified external downloader.Currently supports aria2c,avconv,axel,c url,ffmpeg,httpie,wget
--external-downloader-args I]ARGS]
Give these arguments to the external downloader

Filesystem Options:

-a, --batch-file I]FILE]
File containing URLs to download ([aq]-[aq] for stdin), one URL perline.Lines starting with [aq]#[aq], [aq];[aq] or [aq]][aq] areconsidered as comments and ignored.
Use only video ID in file name
-o, --output I]TEMPLATE]
Output filename template, see the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for all the info
--output-na-placeholder I]PLACEHOLDER]
Placeholder value for unavailable meta fields in output filenametemplate (default is "NA")
--autonumber-start I]NUMBER]
Specify the start value for %(autonumber)s (default is 1)
Restrict filenames to only ASCII characters, and avoid "&" and spaces infilenames
-w, --no-overwrites
Do not overwrite files
-c, --continue
Force resume of partially downloaded files.By default, youtube-dl will resume downloads if possible.
Do not resume partially downloaded files (restart from beginning)
Do not use .part files - write directly into output file
Do not use the Last-modified header to set the file modification time
Write video description to a .description file
Write video metadata to a .info.json file
Write video annotations to a .annotations.xml file
--load-info-json I]FILE]
JSON file containing the video information (created with the"--write- info-json" option)
--cookies I]FILE]
File to read cookies from and dump cookie jar in
--cache-dir I]DIR]
Location in the filesystem where youtube-dl can store some downloadedinformation permanently.By default $XDG_CACHE_HOME/youtube-dl or ~/.cache/youtube-dl .At the moment, only YouTube player files (for videos with obfuscatedsignatures) are cached, but that may change.
Disable filesystem caching
Delete all filesystem cache files

Thumbnail Options:

Write thumbnail image to disk
Write all thumbnail image formats to disk
Simulate and list all available thumbnail formats

Verbosity / Simulation Options:

-q, --quiet
Activate quiet mode
Ignore warnings
-s, --simulate
Do not download the video and do not write anything to disk
Do not download the video
-g, --get-url
Simulate, quiet but print URL
-e, --get-title
Simulate, quiet but print title
Simulate, quiet but print id
Simulate, quiet but print thumbnail URL
Simulate, quiet but print video description
Simulate, quiet but print video length
Simulate, quiet but print output filename
Simulate, quiet but print output format
-j, --dump-json
Simulate, quiet but print JSON information.See the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for a description of available keys.
-J, --dump-single-json
Simulate, quiet but print JSON information for each command-lineargument.If the URL refers to a playlist, dump the whole playlist information ina single line.
Be quiet and print the video information as JSON (video is still beingdownloaded).
Output progress bar as new lines
Do not print progress bar
Display progress in console titlebar
-v, --verbose
Print various debugging information
Print downloaded pages encoded using base64 to debug problems (veryverbose)
Write downloaded intermediary pages to files in the current directory todebug problems
Display sent and read HTTP traffic
-C, --call-home
Contact the youtube-dl server for debugging
Do NOT contact the youtube-dl server for debugging


--encoding I]ENCODING]
Force the specified encoding (experimental)
Suppress HTTPS certificate validation
Use an unencrypted connection to retrieve information about the video.(Currently supported only for YouTube)
--user-agent I]UA]
Specify a custom user agent
--referer I]URL]
Specify a custom referer, use if the video access is restricted to onedomain
--add-header I]FIELD:VALUE]
Specify a custom HTTP header and its value, separated by a colon[aq]:[aq].You can use this option multiple times
Work around terminals that lack bidirectional text support.Requires bidiv or fribidi executable in PATH
--sleep-interval I]SECONDS]
Number of seconds to sleep before each download when used alone or alower bound of a range for randomized sleep before each download(minimum possible number of seconds to sleep) when used along with--max-sleep-interval.
--max-sleep-interval I]SECONDS]
Upper bound of a range for randomized sleep before each download(maximum possible number of seconds to sleep).Must only be used along with --min- sleep-interval.

Video Format Options:

-f, --format I]FORMAT]
Video format code, see the "FORMAT SELECTION" for all the info
Download all available video formats
Prefer free video formats unless a specific one is requested
-F, --list-formats
List all available formats of requested videos
Do not download the DASH manifests and related data on YouTube videos
--merge-output-format I]FORMAT]
If a merge is required (e.g.bestvideo+bestaudio), output to given container format.One of mkv, mp4, ogg, webm, flv.Ignored if no merge is required

Subtitle Options:

Write subtitle file
Write automatically generated subtitle file (YouTube only)
Download all the available subtitles of the video
List all available subtitles for the video
--sub-format I]FORMAT]
Subtitle format, accepts formats preference, for example: "srt" or"ass/srt/best"
--sub-lang I]LANGS]
Languages of the subtitles to download (optional) separated by commas,use --list-subs for available language tags

Authentication Options:

-u, --username I]USERNAME]
Login with this account ID
-p, --password I]PASSWORD]
Account password.If this option is left out, youtube-dl will ask interactively.
-2, --twofactor I]TWOFACTOR]
Two-factor authentication code
-n, --netrc
Use .netrc authentication data
--video-password I]PASSWORD]
Video password (vimeo, youku)

Adobe Pass Options:

--ap-mso I]MSO]
Adobe Pass multiple-system operator (TV provider) identifier, use--ap-list-mso for a list of available MSOs
--ap-username I]USERNAME]
Multiple-system operator account login
--ap-password I]PASSWORD]
Multiple-system operator account password.If this option is left out, youtube-dl will ask interactively.
List all supported multiple-system operators

Post-processing Options:

-x, --extract-audio
Convert video files to audio-only files (requires ffmpeg/avconv andffprobe/avprobe)
--audio-format I]FORMAT]
Specify audio format: "best", "aac", "flac", "mp3", "m4a", "opus","vorbis", or "wav"; "best" by default; No effect without -x
--audio-quality I]QUALITY]
Specify ffmpeg/avconv audio quality, insert a value between 0 (better)and 9 (worse) for VBR or a specific bitrate like 128K (default 5)
--recode-video I]FORMAT]
Encode the video to another format if necessary (currently supported:mp4|flv|ogg|webm|mkv|avi)
--postprocessor-args I]ARGS]
Give these arguments to the postprocessor
-k, --keep-video
Keep the video file on disk after the post-processing; the video iserased by default
Do not overwrite post-processed files; the post-processed files areoverwritten by default
Embed subtitles in the video (only for mp4, webm and mkv videos)
Embed thumbnail in the audio as cover art
Write metadata to the video file
--metadata-from-title I]FORMAT]
Parse additional metadata like song title / artist from the video title.The format syntax is the same as --output.Regular expression with named capture groups may also be used.The parsed parameters replace existing values.Example: --metadata-from-title "%(artist)s - %(title)s" matches atitle like "Coldplay - Paradise".Example (regex): --metadata-from-title "(?P.+?) - (?P
Write metadata to the video file[aq]s xattrs (using dublin core and xdgstandards)
--fixup I]POLICY]
Automatically correct known faults of the file.One of never (do nothing), warn (only emit a warning), detect_or_warn(the default; fix file if we can, warn otherwise)
Prefer avconv over ffmpeg for running the postprocessors
Prefer ffmpeg over avconv for running the postprocessors (default)
--ffmpeg-location I]PATH]
Location of the ffmpeg/avconv binary; either the path to the binary orits containing directory.
--exec I]CMD]
Execute a command on the file after downloading and post-processing,similar to find[aq]s -exec syntax.Example: --exec [aq]adb push {} /sdcard/Music/ && rm {}[aq]
--convert-subs I]FORMAT]
Convert the subtitles to other format (currently supported:srt|ass|vtt|lrc)


You can configure youtube-dl by placing any supported command lineoption to a configuration file.On Linux and macOS, the system wide configuration file is located atC]/etc/youtube-dl.conf] and the user wide configuration file atC]~/.config/youtube-dl/config].On Windows, the user wide configuration file locations areC]%APPDATA%\youtube-dl\config.txt] orC]C:\Users\<user name>\youtube-dl.conf].Note that by default configuration file may not exist so you may need tocreate it yourself.

For example, with the following configuration file youtube-dl willalways extract the audio, not copy the mtime, use a proxy and save allvideos under C]Movies] directory in your home directory:

C]# Lines starting with # are comments# Always extract audio-x# Do not copy the mtime--no-mtime# Use this proxy--proxy Save all videos under Movies directory in your home directory-o ~/Movies/%(title)s.%(ext)s]

Note that options in configuration file are just the same options akaswitches used in regular command line calls thus there B]must be nowhitespace] after C]-] or C]--], e.g.C]-o] or C]--proxy] but not C]- o] orC]-- proxy].

You can use C]--ignore-config] if you want to disable theconfiguration file for a particular youtube-dl run.

You can also use C]--config-location] if you want to use customconfiguration file for a particular youtube-dl run. 

Authentication with C].netrc] file

You may also want to configure automatic credentials storage forextractors that support authentication (by providing login and passwordwith C]--username] and C]--password]) in order not topass credentials as command line arguments on every youtube-dlexecution and prevent tracking plain text passwords in the shell commandhistory.You can achieve this using a C].netrc]file ( on a per extractorbasis.For that you will need to create a C].netrc] file in yourC]$HOME] and restrict permissions to read/write by only you:

C]touch $HOME/.netrcchmod a-rwx,u+rw $HOME/.netrc]

After that you can add credentials for an extractor in the followingformat, where I]extractor] is the name of the extractor inlowercase:

C]machine <extractor> login <login> password <password>]

For example:

C]machine youtube login password my_youtube_passwordmachine twitch login my_twitch_account_name password my_twitch_password]

To activate authentication with the C].netrc] file you shouldpass C]--netrc] to youtube-dl or place it in the configurationfile.

On Windows you may also need to setup the C]%HOME%] environmentvariable manually.For example:



The C]-o] option allows users to indicate a template for theoutput file names.

B]tl;dr:] navigate me to examples.

The basic usage is not to set any template arguments when downloading asingle file, like inC]youtube-dl -o funny_video.flv "https://some/video"].However, it may contain special sequences that will be replaced whendownloading each video.The special sequences may be formatted according to python stringformattingoperations ( example, C]%(NAME)s] or C]%(NAME)05d].To clarify, that is a percent symbol followed by a name in parentheses,followed by formatting operations.Allowed names along with sequence type are:

C]id] (string): Video identifier
C]title] (string): Video title
C]url] (string): Video URL
C]ext] (string): Video filename extension
C]alt_title] (string): A secondary title of the video
C]display_id] (string): An alternative identifier for the video
C]uploader] (string): Full name of the video uploader
C]license] (string): License name the video is licensed under
C]creator] (string): The creator of the video
C]release_date] (string): The date (YYYYMMDD) when the video wasreleased
C]timestamp] (numeric): UNIX timestamp of the moment the videobecame available
C]upload_date] (string): Video upload date (YYYYMMDD)
C]uploader_id] (string): Nickname or id of the video uploader
C]channel] (string): Full name of the channel the video isuploaded on
C]channel_id] (string): Id of the channel
C]location] (string): Physical location where the video was filmed
C]duration] (numeric): Length of the video in seconds
C]view_count] (numeric): How many users have watched the video onthe platform
C]like_count] (numeric): Number of positive ratings of the video
C]dislike_count] (numeric): Number of negative ratings of thevideo
C]repost_count] (numeric): Number of reposts of the video
C]average_rating] (numeric): Average rating give by users, thescale used depends on the webpage
C]comment_count] (numeric): Number of comments on the video
C]age_limit] (numeric): Age restriction for the video (years)
C]is_live] (boolean): Whether this video is a live stream or afixed-length video
C]start_time] (numeric): Time in seconds where the reproductionshould start, as specified in the URL
C]end_time] (numeric): Time in seconds where the reproductionshould end, as specified in the URL
C]format] (string): A human-readable description of the format
C]format_id] (string): Format code specified byC]--format]
C]format_note] (string): Additional info about the format
C]width] (numeric): Width of the video
C]height] (numeric): Height of the video
C]resolution] (string): Textual description of width and height
C]tbr] (numeric): Average bitrate of audio and video in KBit/s
C]abr] (numeric): Average audio bitrate in KBit/s
C]acodec] (string): Name of the audio codec in use
C]asr] (numeric): Audio sampling rate in Hertz
C]vbr] (numeric): Average video bitrate in KBit/s
C]fps] (numeric): Frame rate
C]vcodec] (string): Name of the video codec in use
C]container] (string): Name of the container format
C]filesize] (numeric): The number of bytes, if known in advance
C]filesize_approx] (numeric): An estimate for the number of bytes
C]protocol] (string): The protocol that will be used for theactual download
C]extractor] (string): Name of the extractor
C]extractor_key] (string): Key name of the extractor
C]epoch] (numeric): Unix epoch when creating the file
C]autonumber] (numeric): Number that will be increased with eachdownload, starting at C]--autonumber-start]
C]playlist] (string): Name or id of the playlist that contains thevideo
C]playlist_index] (numeric): Index of the video in the playlistpadded with leading zeros according to the total length of the playlist
C]playlist_id] (string): Playlist identifier
C]playlist_title] (string): Playlist title
C]playlist_uploader] (string): Full name of the playlist uploader
C]playlist_uploader_id] (string): Nickname or id of the playlistuploader

Available for the video that belongs to some logical chapter or section:

C]chapter] (string): Name or title of the chapter the videobelongs to
C]chapter_number] (numeric): Number of the chapter the videobelongs to
C]chapter_id] (string): Id of the chapter the video belongs to

Available for the video that is an episode of some series or programme:

C]series] (string): Title of the series or programme the videoepisode belongs to
C]season] (string): Title of the season the video episode belongsto
C]season_number] (numeric): Number of the season the video episodebelongs to
C]season_id] (string): Id of the season the video episode belongsto
C]episode] (string): Title of the video episode
C]episode_number] (numeric): Number of the video episode within aseason
C]episode_id] (string): Id of the video episode

Available for the media that is a track or a part of a music album:

C]track] (string): Title of the track
C]track_number] (numeric): Number of the track within an album ora disc
C]track_id] (string): Id of the track
C]artist] (string): Artist(s) of the track
C]genre] (string): Genre(s) of the track
C]album] (string): Title of the album the track belongs to
C]album_type] (string): Type of the album
C]album_artist] (string): List of all artists appeared on thealbum
C]disc_number] (numeric): Number of the disc or other physicalmedium the track belongs to
C]release_year] (numeric): Year (YYYY) when the album was released

Each aforementioned sequence when referenced in an output template willbe replaced by the actual value corresponding to the sequence name.Note that some of the sequences are not guaranteed to be present sincethey depend on the metadata obtained by a particular extractor.Such sequences will be replaced with placeholder value provided withC]--output-na-placeholder] (C]NA] by default).

For example for C]-o %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s] and an mp4 videowith title C]youtube-dl test video] and idC]BaW_jenozKcj], this will result in aC]youtube-dl test video-BaW_jenozKcj.mp4] file created in thecurrent directory.

For numeric sequences you can use numeric related formatting, forexample, C]%(view_count)05d] will result in a string with viewcount padded with zeros up to 5 characters, like in C]00042].

Output templates can also contain arbitrary hierarchical path, e.g.C]-o [aq]%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s[aq]]which will result in downloading each video in a directory correspondingto this path template.Any missing directory will be automatically created for you.

To use percent literals in an output template use C]%%].To output to stdout use C]-o -].

The current default template is C]%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s].

In some cases, you don[aq]t want special characters such as 中, spaces,or &, such as when transferring the downloaded filename to a Windowssystem or the filename through an 8bit-unsafe channel.In these cases, add the C]--restrict-filenames] flag to get ashorter title: 

Output template and Windows batch files

If you are using an output template inside a Windows batch file then youmust escape plain percent characters (C]%]) by doubling, so thatC]-o "%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s"] should becomeC]-o "%%(title)s-%%(id)s.%%(ext)s"].However you should not touch C]%][aq]s that are not plaincharacters, e.g.environment variables for expansion should stay intact:C]-o "C:\%HOMEPATH%\Desktop\%%(title)s.%%(ext)s"]. 

Output template examples

Note that on Windows you may need to use double quotes instead ofsingle.

C]$ youtube-dl --get-filename -o [aq]%(title)s.%(ext)s[aq] BaW_jenozKcyoutube-dl test video [aq][aq]_ä↭𝕐.mp4    # All kinds of weird characters$ youtube-dl --get-filename -o [aq]%(title)s.%(ext)s[aq] BaW_jenozKc --restrict-filenamesyoutube-dl_test_video_.mp4          # A simple file name# Download YouTube playlist videos in separate directory indexed by video order in a playlist$ youtube-dl -o [aq]%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s[aq] Download all playlists of YouTube channel/user keeping each playlist in separate directory:$ youtube-dl -o [aq]%(uploader)s/%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s[aq] Download Udemy course keeping each chapter in separate directory under MyVideos directory in your home$ youtube-dl -u user -p password -o [aq]~/MyVideos/%(playlist)s/%(chapter_number)s - %(chapter)s/%(title)s.%(ext)s[aq] Download entire series season keeping each series and each season in separate directory under C:/MyVideos$ youtube-dl -o "C:/MyVideos/%(series)s/%(season_number)s - %(season)s/%(episode_number)s - %(episode)s.%(ext)s" Stream the video being downloaded to stdout$ youtube-dl -o - BaW_jenozKc]


By default youtube-dl tries to download the best available quality,i.e.if you want the best quality you B]don[aq]t need] to pass anyspecial options, youtube-dl will guess it for you by B]default].

But sometimes you may want to download in a different format, forexample when you are on a slow or intermittent connection.The key mechanism for achieving this is so-called I]formatselection] based on which you can explicitly specify desired format,select formats based on some criterion or criteria, setup precedence andmuch more.

The general syntax for format selection is C]--format FORMAT]or shorter C]-f FORMAT] where C]FORMAT] is a I]selectorexpression], expression that describes format or formats you would like todownload.

B]tl;dr:] navigate me to examples.

The simplest case is requesting a specific format, for example withC]-f 22] you can download the format with format code equal to22.You can get the list of available format codes for particular videousing C]--list-formats] or C]-F].Note that these format codes are extractor specific.

You can also use a file extension (currently C]3gp], C]aac],C]flv], C]m4a], C]mp3], C]mp4], C]ogg],C]wav], C]webm] are supported) to download the best qualityformat of a particular file extension served as a single file, e.g.C]-f webm] will download the best quality format with theC]webm] extension served as a single file.

You can also use special names to select particular edge case formats:

C]best]: Select the best quality format represented by a singlefile with video and audio.
C]worst]: Select the worst quality format represented by a singlefile with video and audio.
C]bestvideo]: Select the best quality video-only format (e.g.DASH video).May not be available.
C]worstvideo]: Select the worst quality video-only format.May not be available.
C]bestaudio]: Select the best quality audio only-format.May not be available.
C]worstaudio]: Select the worst quality audio only-format.May not be available.

For example, to download the worst quality video-only format you canuse C]-f worstvideo].

If you want to download multiple videos and they don[aq]t have the sameformats available, you can specify the order of preference usingslashes.Note that slash is left-associative, i.e.formats on the left hand side are preferred, for exampleC]-f 22/17/18] will download format 22 if it[aq]s available,otherwise it will download format 17 if it[aq]s available, otherwise itwill download format 18 if it[aq]s available, otherwise it willcomplain that no suitable formats are available for download.

If you want to download several formats of the same video use a comma asa separator, e.g.C]-f 22,17,18] will download all these three formats, of courseif they are available.Or a more sophisticated example combined with the precedence feature:C]-f 136/137/mp4/bestvideo,140/m4a/bestaudio].

You can also filter the video formats by putting a condition inbrackets, as in C]-f "best[height=720]"] (orC]-f "[filesize>10M]"]).

The following numeric meta fields can be used with comparisonsC]<], C]<=], C]>], C]>=], C]=] (equals),C]!=] (not equals):

C]filesize]: The number of bytes, if known in advance
C]width]: Width of the video, if known
C]height]: Height of the video, if known
C]tbr]: Average bitrate of audio and video in KBit/s
C]abr]: Average audio bitrate in KBit/s
C]vbr]: Average video bitrate in KBit/s
C]asr]: Audio sampling rate in Hertz
C]fps]: Frame rate

Also filtering work for comparisons C]=] (equals), C]^=](starts with), C]$=] (ends with), C]*=] (contains) andfollowing string meta fields:

C]ext]: File extension
C]acodec]: Name of the audio codec in use
C]vcodec]: Name of the video codec in use
C]container]: Name of the container format
C]protocol]: The protocol that will be used for the actualdownload, lower-case (C]http], C]https], C]rtsp],C]rtmp], C]rtmpe], C]mms], C]f4m], C]ism],C]http_dash_segments], C]m3u8], or C]m3u8_native])
C]format_id]: A short description of the format
C]language]: Language code

Any string comparison may be prefixed with negation C]!] in orderto produce an opposite comparison, e.g.C]!*=] (does not contain).

Note that none of the aforementioned meta fields are guaranteed to bepresent since this solely depends on the metadata obtained by particularextractor, i.e.the metadata offered by the video hoster.

Formats for which the value is not known are excluded unless you put aquestion mark (C]?]) after the operator.You can combine format filters, soC]-f "[height <=? 720][tbr>500]"] selects up to 720p videos(or videos where the height is not known) with a bitrate of at least 500KBit/s.

You can merge the video and audio of two formats into a single fileusing C]-f <video-format>+<audio-format>] (requires ffmpeg oravconv installed), for example C]-f bestvideo+bestaudio] willdownload the best video-only format, the best audio-only format andmux them together with ffmpeg/avconv.

Format selectors can also be grouped using parentheses, for example ifyou want to download the best mp4 and webm formats with a height lowerthan 480 you can use C]-f [aq](mp4,webm)[height<480][aq]].

Since the end of April 2015 and version 2015.04.26, youtube-dl usesC]-f bestvideo+bestaudio/best] as the default format selection(see #5447 (,#5456 ( ffmpeg or avconv are installed this results in downloadingC]bestvideo] and C]bestaudio] separately and muxing themtogether into a single file giving the best overall quality available.Otherwise it falls back to C]best] and results in downloading thebest available quality served as a single file.C]best] is also needed for videos that don[aq]t come from YouTubebecause they don[aq]t provide the audio and video in two differentfiles.If you want to only download some DASH formats (for example if you arenot interested in getting videos with a resolution higher than 1080p),you can add C]-f bestvideo[height<=?1080]+bestaudio/best] toyour configuration file.Note that if you use youtube-dl to stream to C]stdout] (and mostlikely to pipe it to your media player then), explicitly specify output template as C]-o -], youtube-dlstill uses C]-f best] format selection in order to start contentdelivery immediately to your player and not to wait untilC]bestvideo] and C]bestaudio] are downloaded and muxed.

If you want to preserve the old format selection behavior (prior toyoutube-dl 2015.04.26), want to download the best available quality media served as a singlefile, you should explicitly specify your choice with C]-f best].You may want to add it to the configuration file in order not to type itevery time you run youtube-dl. 

Format selection examples

Note that on Windows you may need to use double quotes instead ofsingle.

C]# Download best mp4 format available or any other best if no mp4 available$ youtube-dl -f [aq]bestvideo[ext=mp4]+bestaudio[ext=m4a]/best[ext=mp4]/best[aq]# Download best format available but no better than 480p$ youtube-dl -f [aq]bestvideo[height<=480]+bestaudio/best[height<=480][aq]# Download best video only format but no bigger than 50 MB$ youtube-dl -f [aq]best[filesize<50M][aq]# Download best format available via direct link over HTTP/HTTPS protocol$ youtube-dl -f [aq](bestvideo+bestaudio/best)[protocol^=http][aq]# Download the best video format and the best audio format without merging them$ youtube-dl -f [aq]bestvideo,bestaudio[aq] -o [aq]%(title)s.f%(format_id)s.%(ext)s[aq]]

Note that in the last example, an output template is recommended asbestvideo and bestaudio may have the same file name. 


Videos can be filtered by their upload date using the optionsC]--date], C]--datebefore] or C]--dateafter].They accept dates in two formats:

Absolute dates: Dates in the format C]YYYYMMDD].
Relative dates: Dates in the formatC](now|today)[+-][0-9](day|week|month|year)(s)?]


C]# Download only the videos uploaded in the last 6 months$ youtube-dl --dateafter now-6months# Download only the videos uploaded on January 1, 1970$ youtube-dl --date 19700101$ # Download only the videos uploaded in the 200x decade$ youtube-dl --dateafter 20000101 --datebefore 20091231]



How do I update youtube-dl?

If you[aq]ve followed our manual installationinstructions (, youcan simply run C]youtube-dl -U] (or, on Linux,C]sudo youtube-dl -U]).

If you have used pip, a simpleC]sudo pip install -U youtube-dl] is sufficient to update.

If you have installed youtube-dl using a package manager likeI]apt-get] or I]yum], use the standard system updatemechanism to update.Note that distribution packages are often outdated.As a rule of thumb, youtube-dl releases at least once a month, andoften weekly or even daily.Simply go to to find out the current version.Unfortunately, there is nothing we youtube-dl developers can do if yourdistribution serves a really outdated version.You can (and should) complain to your distribution in their bugtrackeror support forum.

As a last resort, you can also uninstall the version installed by yourpackage manager and follow our manual installation instructions.For that, remove the distribution[aq]s package, with a line like

C]sudo apt-get remove -y youtube-dl]

Afterwards, simply follow our manual installationinstructions (

C]sudo wget -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dlsudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dlhash -r]

Again, from then on you[aq]ll be able to update withC]sudo youtube-dl -U]. 

youtube-dl is extremely slow to start on Windows

Add a file exclusion for C]youtube-dl.exe] in Windows Defendersettings. 

I[aq]m getting an error

C]Unable to extract OpenGraph title] on YouTube playlists

YouTube changed their playlist format in March 2014 and later on, soyou[aq]ll need at least youtube-dl 2014.07.25 to download all YouTubevideos.

If you have installed youtube-dl with a package manager, pip, setup.pyor a tarball, please use that to update.Note that Ubuntu packages do not seem to get updated anymore.Since we are not affiliated with Ubuntu, there is little we can do.Feel free to reportbugs ( tothe Ubuntu packagingpeople ( all they have to do is update the package to a somewhat recentversion.See above for a way to update. 

I[aq]m getting an error when trying to use output template:

C]error: using output template conflicts with using title, video ID or auto number]

Make sure you are not using C]-o] with any of these optionsC]-t], C]--title], C]--id], C]-A] orC]--auto-number] set in command line or in a configurationfile.Remove the latter if any. 

Do I always have to pass C]-citw]?

By default, youtube-dl intends to have the best options (incidentally,if you have a convincing case that these should be different, pleasefile an issue where you explain that (, it is unnecessary and sometimes harmful to copy long optionstrings from webpages.In particular, the only option out of C]-citw] that is regularlyuseful is C]-i]. 

Can you please put the C]-b] option back?

Most people asking this question are not aware that youtube-dl nowdefaults to downloading the highest available quality as reported byYouTube, which will be 1080p or 720p in some cases, so you no longerneed the C]-b] option.For some specific videos, maybe YouTube does not report them to beavailable in a specific high quality format you[aq]re interested in.In that case, simply request it with the C]-f] option andyoutube-dl will try to download it. 

I get HTTP error 402 when trying to download a video. What[aq]s


Apparently YouTube requires you to pass a CAPTCHA test if you downloadtoo much.We[aq]re considering to provide a way to let you solve theCAPTCHA (, but at themoment, your best course of action is pointing a web browser to theyoutube URL, solving the CAPTCHA, and restart youtube-dl. 

Do I need any other programs?

youtube-dl works fine on its own on most sites.However, if you want to convert video/audio, you[aq]ll needavconv ( or ffmpeg ( some sites - most notably YouTube - videos can be retrieved in ahigher quality format without will detect whether avconv/ffmpeg is present andautomatically pick the best option.

Videos or video formats streamed via RTMP protocol can only bedownloaded when rtmpdump ( is installed.Downloading MMS and RTSP videos requires eithermplayer ( or mpv ( to beinstalled. 

I have downloaded a video but how can I play it?

Once the video is fully downloaded, use any video player, such asmpv (, vlc ( ormplayer ( 

I extracted a video URL with C]-g], but it does not play on

another machine / in my web browser.

It depends a lot on the service.In many cases, requests for the video (to download/play it) must comefrom the same IP address and with the same cookies and/or HTTP headers.Use the C]--cookies] option to write the required cookies into afile, and advise your downloader to read cookies from that file.Some sites also require a common user agent to be used, useC]--dump-user-agent] to see the one in use by youtube-dl.You can also get necessary cookies and HTTP headers from JSON outputobtained with C]--dump-json].

It may be beneficial to use IPv6; in some cases, the restrictions areonly applied to IPv4.Some services (sometimes only for a subset of videos) do not restrictthe video URL by IP address, cookie, or user-agent, but these are theexception rather than the rule.

Please bear in mind that some URL protocols are B]not] supportedby browsers out of the box, including RTMP.If you are using C]-g], your own downloader must support these aswell.

If you want to play the video on a machine that is not runningyoutube-dl, you can relay the video content from the machine that runsyoutube-dl.You can use C]-o -] to let youtube-dl stream a video tostdout, or simply allow the player to download the files written byyoutube-dl in turn. 

ERROR: no fmt_url_map or conn information found in video info

YouTube has switched to a new video info format in July 2011 which isnot supported by old versions of youtube-dl.See above for how to update youtube-dl. 

ERROR: unable to download video

YouTube requires an additional signature since September 2012 which isnot supported by old versions of youtube-dl.See above for how to update youtube-dl. 

Video URL contains an ampersand and I[aq]m getting some strange

output C][1] 2839] orC][aq]v[aq] is not recognized as an internal or external command]

That[aq]s actually the output from your shell.Since ampersand is one of the special shell characters it[aq]sinterpreted by the shell preventing you from passing the whole URL toyoutube-dl.To disable your shell from interpreting the ampersands (or any otherspecial characters) you have to either put the whole URL in quotes orescape them with a backslash (which approach will work depends on yourshell).

For example if your URL is you should end up withfollowing command:

C]youtube-dl [aq][aq]]



For Windows you have to use the double quotes:

C]youtube-dl ""] 

ExtractorError: Could not find JS function u[aq]OF[aq]

In February 2015, the new YouTube player contained a character sequencein a string that was misinterpreted by old versions of youtube-dl.See above for how to update youtube-dl. 

HTTP Error 429: Too Many Requests or 402: Payment Required

These two error codes indicate that the service is blocking your IPaddress because of overuse.Usually this is a soft block meaning that you can gain access againafter solving CAPTCHA.Just open a browser and solve a CAPTCHA the service suggests you andafter that pass cookies to youtube-dl.Note that if your machine has multiple external IPs then you should alsopass exactly the same IP you[aq]ve used for solving CAPTCHA withC]--source-address].Also you may need to pass a C]User-Agent] HTTP header of yourbrowser with C]--user-agent].

If this is not the case (no CAPTCHA suggested to solve by the service)then you can contact the service and ask them to unblock your IPaddress, or - if you have acquired a whitelisted IP address already -use the C]--proxy] or C]--source-address] options toselect another IP address. 

SyntaxError: Non-ASCII character

The error

C]File "youtube-dl", line 2SyntaxError: Non-ASCII character [aq]\x93[aq] ...]

means you[aq]re using an outdated version of Python.Please update to Python 2.6 or 2.7. 

What is this binary file? Where has the code gone?

Since June 2012(#342 ( youtube-dlis packed as an executable zipfile, simply unzip it (might need renamingto C]] first on some systems) or clone the gitrepository, as laid out above.If you modify the code, you can run it by executing theC]] file.To recompile the executable, run C]make youtube-dl]. 

The exe throws an error due to missing C]MSVCR100.dll]

To run the exe you need to install first the Microsoft Visual C++ 2010Redistributable Package(x86) ( 

On Windows, how should I set up ffmpeg and youtube-dl? Where should

I put the exe files?

If you put youtube-dl and ffmpeg in the same directory that you[aq]rerunning the command from, it will work, but that[aq]s rathercumbersome.

To make a different directory work - either for ffmpeg, or foryoutube-dl, or for both - simply create the directory (say,C]C:\bin], or C]C:\Users\<User name>\bin]), put all theexecutables directly in there, and then set your PATH environmentvariable ( to includethat directory.

From then on, after restarting your shell, you will be able to accessboth youtube-dl and ffmpeg (and youtube-dl will be able to findffmpeg) by simply typing C]youtube-dl] or C]ffmpeg], nomatter what directory you[aq]re in. 

How do I put downloads into a specific folder?

Use the C]-o] to specify an output template, for exampleC]-o "/home/user/videos/%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s"].If you want this for all of your downloads, put the option into yourconfiguration file. 

How do I download a video starting with a C]-]?

Either prepend C]] or separate theID from the options with C]--]:

C]youtube-dl -- -wNyEUrxzFUyoutube-dl ""]

How do I pass cookies to youtube-dl?

Use the C]--cookies] option, for exampleC]--cookies /path/to/cookies/file.txt].

In order to extract cookies from browser use any conforming browserextension for exporting cookies.For example, Getcookies.txt ( Chrome) orcookies.txt ( Firefox).

Note that the cookies file must be in Mozilla/Netscape format and thefirst line of the cookies file must be eitherC]# HTTP Cookie File] orC]# Netscape HTTP Cookie File].Make sure you have correct newlineformat ( in the cookies file andconvert newlines if necessary to correspond with your OS, namelyC]CRLF] (C]\r\n]) for Windows and C]LF](C]\n]) for Unix and Unix-like systems (Linux, macOS, etc.).C]HTTP Error 400: Bad Request] when using C]--cookies]is a good sign of invalid newline format.

Passing cookies to youtube-dl is a good way to workaround login when aparticular extractor does not implement it explicitly.Another use case is working aroundCAPTCHA ( some websites requireyou to solve in particular cases in order to get access (e.g.YouTube, CloudFlare). 

How do I stream directly to media player?

You will first need to tell youtube-dl to stream media to stdout withC]-o -], and also tell your media player to read from stdin (itmust be capable of this for streaming) and then pipe former to latter.For example, streaming to vlc ( can beachieved with:

C]youtube-dl -o - "" | vlc -]

How do I download only new videos from a playlist?

Use download-archive feature.With this feature you should initially download the complete playlistwith C]--download-archive