MAN page from RedHat EL 6 xorriso-1.5.0-1.el6.i686.rpm
Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: Version 1.5.0, Sep 15, 2018Index
xorrecord - Emulation of CD/DVD/BD program cdrecord by program xorriso
[ options ] dev=device [track_source]
xorrecordwrites preformatted data to CD, DVD, and BD media.
It understands some options of program cdrecord from cdrtools byJoerg Schilling.Its implementation is part of program xorriso which shares no sourcecode with cdrtools, but rather makes use of libburn for communicatingwith the drive.
Another, more complete cdrecord emulator is program cdrskinwhich uses the same burn functions as xorrecord, but is ableto burn audio CDs and to handle CD-TEXT.
MMC, Session, Track, Media types:MMC
is a standard out of the SCSI family which defines the interaction betweencomputers and optical drives. Since more than a decade all CD, DVD, or BDrecorders obey this standard regardless by what bus cabling they areattached to the computer. libburn relies on this standard compliance andon the capability of the operating system to perform SCSI transactionsover the particular bus cabling.
is a data region on an optical disc which usuallygets written in a single sweep. It contains at least one Track
which is a contiguous string of readable blocks. xorrecord
produces a single session with a single data trackwhich consists of blocks with 2048 bytes each. It chooses the write modeautomatically according to media type, medium state, and option -multi.
On CD media there are other track types, like audio, and particular writemodes like TAO and SAO. CD and DVD- media can put more than one track intoa session. Some of these features can be addressed by program cdrskin
MMC describes several recordable media types
which roughly form twofamilies.Sequentially recordable media
are CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-R DL, DVD-RW, DVD+R, DVD+R DL, BD-R.Except DVD-R DL they can store more than one session if there is stillunwritten space and if the previous session was written with option-multi
. CD-RW and DVD-RW can be blanked in order to be re-usablefrom scratch.Overwritable media
are DVD-RAM, DVD+RW, formatted DVD-RW, BD-RE.They offer a single session with a single track for random access writing.There is no need to blank overwritable media before re-use.
DVD-RW media are sold in sequentially recordable state but can beformatted once to become overwritable. See optionsblank=format_overwrite
If ISO 9660 filesystems are to be stored on overwritable media, then itis possible to emulate multiple sessions, by using option--grow_overwriteable_iso
. In this case, the need forblanking before re-use is emulated too.
Drive preparation and addressing:
The drives, CD, DVD, or BD burners, are accessed via file addresses whichare specific to libburn and the operating system. Those addresses get listedby a run of xorrecord --devices or xorriso -device_links.
On GNU/Linux, FreeBSD, and NetBSD, the user needs rw-permission for thedevice file.On Solaris, the user needs r-permission and privilege "sys_devices",which is usually gained by running xorrecord via command pfexec.
These permissions or privileges are needed already for listing a drive.So it might be necessary to get the overview as superuser or via pfexec.
xorrecord does not perform cdrecord option -scanbus and doesnot accept the addresses of form Bus,Target,Lun which are told by -scanbus.If support for these addresses is necessary, consider to use program cdrskin.
It is possible to let xorrecord work on emulated drives.Their addresses begin by prefix "stdio:" followed by a file address.The emulated media behavior depends on the file type.See man xorriso for details.
If standard output is chosen as emulated drive, then all program resulttexts, which usually appear on standard output, will get redirected tostandard error.
Relation to program xorriso:xorrecord
is actually a command mode of program xorriso
,which gets entered either by xorriso command "-as cdrecord" or bystarting the program by one of the names "xorrecord", "cdrecord","wodim", or "cdrskin".
This command mode can be left by argument "--" which leadsto generic xorriso command mode. See man xorriso
for its description.Other than in xorriso command mode, the sequence of the cdrecord emulationoptions does not matter.All pending actions get performed in a fixed sequence before the programrun ends or before cdrecord emulation ends.
- Addressing the drive:
- Print the list of accessible CD, DVD, or BD drives to standard output.Drives might be inaccessible if the user lacks of permissions to use themor if the drive is in use by another program.
Each accessible drive is shown by a line like:
0 -dev '/dev/sr0' rwrw-- : 'TSSTcorp' 'CDDVDW SH-S203B'
The libburn address of this drive is '/dev/sr0'. 'TSSTcorp' is thename of the vendor (in this case: Toshiba Samsung Storage TechnologiesCorporation), 'CDDVDW SH-S203B' is the model name (in this case: a DVD burner).
Afterwards end emulation without performing any further drive operation.
- Set the libburn address of the drive to be used.
E.g. on GNU/Linux: dev=/dev/sr0
E.g. on FreeBSD: dev=/dev/cd0
E.g. on NetBSD: dev=/dev/rcd0d
E.g. on Solaris: dev=/dev/rdsk/c2t2d0s2
See also above "Drive preparation and addressing".
The medium in the drive should not be mounted or be otherwise in use.
This option will only get into effect if a track source, a blank= option,or a drive inquiry option is given. Else it will lead to a SORRY eventand normally cause a non-zero exit value.
- Inquiring drive and media:
- Print to standard output: vendor, model name, and firmware revisionof the drive.
- Print unconditionally that the drive supports burnfree, SAO, and TAO.Also print the output of option -inq.
- Print the output of -checkdrive, the most capable profile of the mediumin the drive, the list of profiles which are supported by the drive,whether it is erasable (i.e. can be blanked), the media manufacturer, andthe medium product name.
Profiles are usage models, which are often tied to a particular media type(e.g. CD-RW), but may also apply to a family of media. E.g. profile CD-ROMapplies to all CD media which contain data.
- Print a table of content of the medium in the drive. The output is notcompatible tocdrecord option -toc, but rather the one of xorriso command -toc.It lists the address, vendor, model name, and firmware revision of the drive.
About the medium it tells product name and manufacturer, whether thereis already content written, and if so, whether the medium is closed orappendable. Appendable media can take another session.The amount of readable and writable data is told.If there are sessions, then their start block address and size is reported.If a session contains an ISO 9660 filesystem, then its Volume Id is reported.If the medium is writable, then the next writable block address is reported.
If not option --grow_overwriteable_iso is given or no ISO 9660file system is present on the medium, then overwritable media are reportedas being blank. This is due to the fact that they can be written fromscratch without further preparation, and that MMC does not distinguishbetween data written by the most previous burn run and older datawhich have not been overwritten by that burn run.Consequently, these media are reported with 0 readable blocks, althoughall their writable blocks normally are readable, too.
- Print the argument text for option -C of programs mkisofs, genisoimage,or xorrisofs. It consists of two numbers separated by a comma.
The first number tells the first block of the first track of the last recordedsession. This is also the address used by default when operating systemsmount a medium with e.g. ISO 9660 filesystem.
The second number tells the next writable address, where xorrecordwill begin to write the next session.
This option is only valid for written, appendable media. In all othercases it will yield no output text but will abort the programwith non-zero exit value.
- Settings for the burn run:
A burn run requires exactly one track source address argument, whichtells from where to read the data which shall be put into the upcommingsession. The medium state must be either blank or appendable.
Track source may be "-" for standard input or the address of a readablefile of any type except directories. Nearly all media types accept a tracksource with unpredictable byte count, like standard input or named pipes.Nevertheless, DVD-R DL and DVD-RW blanked by mode deformat_quickestdemand exact in-advance reservation of the track size, so that they eitherneed to be read from a source ofpredictable length, or need to be accompanied by option tsize= orby option -isosize.
Several options expect a size value as argument. A number with a trailingletter "b" or without a trailing letter is a plain byte count. Other trailingletters cause multiplication of the given number by a scaling factor:
"k" or "K" = 1024 , "m" or "M" = 1024k , "g" or "G" = 1024m , "s" or "S" = 2048
E.g. tsize=234567s means a size of 234567 * 2048 = 480393216 bytes.
- Blank a CD-RW or DVD-RW to make it re-usable from scratch.Format a DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD-R, or BD-RE if not yet formatted.
This operation normally makes any recorded data on the medium unreadable.It is combinable with burning in the same run of xorrecord,or it may be performed without a track source, leaving the medium empty.
The mode given with blank= selects the particular behavior:
Try to make the media ready for writing from scratch. If it needs formatting,then format it. If it is not blank, then try to apply blank=fast.It is a reason to abort if the medium cannot assume thoroughly writeablestate, e.g. if it is a non-blank write-once.
This leaves unformatted DVD-RW in unformatted blank state. To format DVD-RW useblank=format_overwrite. Blank unformatted BD-R stay unformatted.
(Note: blank=as_needed is not an original cdrecord option.)
Blank an entire CD-RW or an unformatted DVD-RW.
Minimally blank an entire CD-RW or blank an unformatted DVD-RW.
Like blank=all but with the additional ability to blank overwriteable DVD-RW.This will destroy their formatting and make them sequentially recordable.
(Note: blank=deformat is not an original cdrecord options)
Like blank=deformat but blanking DVD-RW only minimally.This is faster than full blanking but yields media incapable ofwriting tracks of unpredicatable size.Multi-session will not be possible either.
(Note: blank=deformat_quickest is not an original cdrecord option.)
Format a DVD-RW to "Restricted Overwrite". The user should bring some patience.
Format unformatted DVD+RW, BD-RE or blank BD-R to their default size.It is not mandatory to do this with DVD+RW and BD-RE media, because theywill get formatted automatically on the first write attempt.
BD-R media may be written in unformatted state. This keeps disabled thereplacement of bad blocks and enables full nominal write speed. Once BD-Rmedia are written, they cannot be formatted any more.
For re-formatting already formatted media or for formatting withnon-default size, use program xorriso with command -format.
(Note: blank=format_overwrite is not an original cdrecord options)
Print a short overview of blank modes to standard error output.
Afterwards end emulation without performing any drive operation.
- This option keeps CD, unformatted DVD-R[W], DVD+R, or BD-R appendableafter the current session has been written.Without it the disc gets closed and may not be written any more - unless itis a -RW and gets blanked, which causes loss of its content.
This option cannot be applied to DVD-R DL or to DVD-RW which were blankedby mode "deformat_quickest". Option --multi_if_possiblemay automatically recognize and handle this situation.
In order to have all filesystem content accessible, the eventual ISO-9660filesystem of a follow-upsession needs to be prepared in a special way by the filesystem formatterprogram. mkisofs, genisoimage, and xorrisofs expect particular info aboutthe situation which can be retrieved by xorrecord option -msinfo.
With overwriteable DVD or BD media, -multi cannot mark the end of the session.So when adding a new session, this end has to be determined from the payload.Currently only ISO-9660 filesystems can be used that way. See option--grow_overwriteable_iso.
- Try to perform the drive operations without actually affecting the insertedmedia. There is no warranty that this will work with a particular combinationof drive and media. Blanking is prevented reliably, though.To avoid inadverted real burning, -dummy refuses burn runs on anything butCD-R[W], DVD-R[W], or emulated stdio-drives.
- Wait until input data is available at stdin or EOF occurs at stdin.Only then begin to access any drives.
One should use this if xorrisofs is working at the end of a pipe where thefeeder process reads from the drive before it starts writing its output intoxorrisofs. Example:
xorrisofs ... -C 0,12800 -M /dev/sr0 ... | \
xorrecord dev=/dev/sr0 ... -waiti -
This option works even if standard input is not the track source. If no processis piping in, then the Enter key of your terminal will act as trigger forxorrecord. Note that this input line will not be consumed bycdrskin if standard input is not the track source. It will end up as shellcommand, usually.
- Announce the exact size of the track source. This is necessary withDVD-R DL media and with quickest blanked DVD-RW, if the size cannot bedetermined in advance from the track source. E.g. if it is standard inputor a named pipe.
If the track source does not deliver the predicted amount of bytes, theremainder of the track is padded with zeros. This is not considered an error.If on the other hand the track source delivers more than the announced bytesthen the track on media gets truncated to the predicted size and xorrecordexits with non-zero value.
- Try to obtain the track size from the content of the track source.This works only if the track source bears an ISO 9660 filesystem.Any other track source content will cause the burn run to abort.
If the track source is not a regular file or block device, then this optionwill work only if the program's fifo size is at least 64k. See option fs=.
- Add the given amount of trailing zeros to the upcomming track.This feature can be disabled by size 0. Default is 300 kB in order towork around a problem with GNU/Linux which often fails to read the last fewblocks of a CD track which was written in write mode TAO. TAO is usedby xorrecord if the track size cannot be predicted or if the CDmedium is not blank but appendable.
- The same as padsize=0.
- The same as padsize=15s. This was once sufficient with older GNU/Linuxkernels. Meanwhile one should at least use padsize=128k, if not padsize=300k.
- Explicitly announce that the track source shall be recorded as data track,and not as audio track. This option has no effect with xorrecord,because there is no support for other track formats anyway.
- Explicitly demand that write type TAO shall be used for CD, or Incrementalfor DVD-R. Normally the program will choose the write type according to thegiven medium state, option -multi, and track source. Demanding it explicitlyprevents the start of a write run, if it is not appropriate to the situation.
- Explicitly demand that write type SAO shall be used for CD, or DAO for DVD-R.This might prevent the write run, if it is not appropriate to the situation.
- Alias of -sao.
- Set the size of the program fifo buffer to the given valuerather than the default of 4m.
The fifo buffers a temporary surplus of track source data in order toprovide the drive with a steady stream during times of temporary lack of tracksource supply.
Other than cdrecord, xorrecord enables drive buffer underrun protection bydefault and does not wait with writing until the fifo is full for a firsttime.On very old CD drives and slow computers, this might cause aborted burn runs.In this case, consider to use program cdrskin for CD burning.DVD and BD drives tolerate buffer underrun without problems.
The larger the fifo, the longer periods of poor source supply can becompensated. But a large fifo can deprive the operating system of read cachefor better filesystem performance.
- Set the write speed. Default is 0 = maximum speed.Speed can be given in media type dependent x-speed numbers or as adesired throughput per second in MMC compliant kB (= 1000)or MB (= 1000 kB). Media x-speed factor can be set explicitlyby appending "c" for CD, "d" for DVD, "b" for BD. "x" is optional.
706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then themedium in the drive will decide.Default unit is CD, 1x = 176,400 raw bytes/second.With DVD, 1x = 1,385,000 bytes/second.With BD, 1x = 4,495,625 bytes/second.
MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and takethe speed value given by the burn program only as a hintfor their own decision.
- Equivalent to:
- Equivalent to:
In cdrecord, this also controls use of the Immed bit.But xorriso uses Immed where possible and appropriate, unless it is disabledby option use_immed_bit=off .
- Eject the drive tray after alll other work is done.
- Program version and verbosity:
- Print to standard output a line beginning by
"Cdrecord 2.01-Emulation Copyright"
and further lines which report the version of xorriso and itssupporting libraries. They also state the license under which the programis provided, and disclaim any warranty, to the extent permitted by law.
Afterwards end emulation without performing any drive operation.
- Increase program verbosity by one level. There are four verbosity levelsfrom nearly silent to debugging verbosity. The both highest levels canbe enabled by repeated -v or by -vv or by -vvv.
- Log SCSI commands and drive replies to standard error.This might be of interest if xorrecord and a particular driveor medium do not cooperate as expected, or if you just want to knowhow libburn interacts with the drive.To understand this extremely verbous log, one needs to read SCSIspecs SPC, SBC, and MMC.
Please do not add such a log to a bug report on the first hand,unless you want to point out a particular deviationfrom said specs, or if you get asked for this log by a maintainer ofxorrecord who feels in charge for your bug report.
- Print a sparse list of program options to standard errorand declare not to be cdrecord.
Afterwards end emulation without performing any drive operation.
- Options not compatible to cdrecord:
- Only if used as first command line argument this optionprevents reading and interpretation of startup files. See section FILES below.
- GNU/Linux specific:
By default, cdrskin tries to map Linux drive addresses to /dev/sr* beforethey get opened for operating the drive. This coordinates well withother use cases of optical drives, like mount(8). But since year 2010all /dev/sr* share a global lock which allows only one drive to processan SCSI command while all others have to wait for its completion.This yields awful throughput if more than one drive is writing or readingsimultaneously.
The global lock is not applied to device files /dev/sg* and also not withthe system calls read(2), write(2). But ioctl(SG_IO) is affected, which isneeded to perform the SCSI commands for optical burning.
So for simultaneous burn runs on modern GNU/Linux it is advisable to usedrive_scsi_dev_family="sg". The drive addresses may then well be given as/dev/sr* but will nevertheless get used as /dev/sg*.
- Enable emulation of multi-session writing on overwriteable media whichcontain an ISO 9660 filesystem. This emulation is learned from growisofs -Mbut adapted to the usage model of
xorrisofs -C -M | xorrecord -waiti -multi -
for sequential media.
--grow_overwriteable_iso does not hamper the use of true multi-session media.I.e. it is possible to use the same xorrecord options with bothkinds of mediaand to achieve similar results if ISO 9660 filesystem images are to be written.This option implies option -isosize and therefore demands that the tracksource is a ISO 9660 filesystem image.
With overwriteable media and no option blank=fast|all present it expands aneventual ISO 9660 filesystem on media. It is assumed that this image's innersize description points to the end of the valuable data.Overwriteable media with a recognizable ISO 9660 size will be regarded asappendable rather than as blank. I.e. options -msinfo and -toc will work.-toc will always show a single session with its size increasing withevery added ISO 9660 image.
- Apply option -multi if the medium is suitable. Not suitable are DVD-R DLand DVD-RW, which were blanked with mode "deformat_quickest".
Not all drives correctly recognize such fast-blanked DVD-RW which need "on".If there is well founded suspicion that a burn run failed due to-multi, then this causes a re-try without -multi.
- Mode "on" requests that compliance to the desired speed setting ispreferred over management of write errors. With DVD-RAM and BD this canbring effective write speed near to the nominal write speed of the media.But it will also disable the automatic use of replacement blocksif write errors occur. It might as well be disliked or ignored by the drive.
If a number is given, then error management stays enabled for all byteaddresses below that number. Any number below 16s is the same as "off".
- Linux specific:Set the number of bytes to be transmitted with each write operation to DVDor BD media. Tracks get padded up to the next multiple of this writesize. A number of 64 KB may improve throughput with bus systems whichshow latency problems. The default depends on media type, optionstream_recording=, and on compile time options.
- Control whether the drive buffer shall be kept from getting completely filled.Parameter "on" (or "1") keeps the program from trying to write to the burnerdrive while its buffer is in danger to be filled over a given limit.If this filling is exceeded then the program will wait until the fillingreaches a given low percentage value.
This can ease the load on operating system and drive controller and thus helpwith achieving better input bandwidth if disk and burner are not on independentcontrollers (like hda and hdb). It may also help with simultaneous burns ondifferent burners with Linux kernels like 3.16, if one has reason not to fixthe problem by drive_scsi_dev_family="sg". On the other hand it increasesthe risk of buffer underflow and thus reduced write speed.
Some burners are not suitable because theyreport buffer fill with granularity too coarse in size or time,or expect their buffer to be filled to the top before they go to full speed.
Parameters "off" or "0" disable this feature.
The threshold for beginning to wait is given by parameter "max_percent=".Parameter "min_percent=" defines the threshold for resuming transmission.Percentages are permissible in the range of 25 to 100. Numbers in thisrange without a prepended name are interpreted as "on:min_percent=".
The optimal values depend on the buffer behavior of the drive.
Parameter "timeout_sec=" defines after which time of unsuccessful waitingthe modesty shall be disabled because it does not work.
Parameter "min_usec=" defines the initial sleeping period in microseconds.If the drive buffer appears to be too full for sending more data, theprogram will wait the given time and inquire the buffer fill state again.If repeated inquiry shows not enough free space, the sleep time willslowly be increased to what parameter "max_usec=" defines.
Parameters, which are not mentioned with a modesty_on_drive= option,stay unchanged.Default is:
- Control whether several long lasting SCSI commands shall be executed with theImmed bit, which makes the commands end early while the drive operation isstill going on. xorriso then inquires progress indication until the drivereports to be ready again. If this feature is turned off, then blanking andformatting will show no progress indication.
It may depend on the operating system whether -use_immed_bit is set to "off"by default.
- Set the block address on overwritable media where to start writing the track.With DVD+RW, DVD-RAM or BD-RE, byte_offset must be aligned to 2 kiB blocks,but better is 32 kiB on DVD and 64 kiB on BD.With formatted DVD-RW 32 kiB alignment is mandatory.
Other media are not suitable for this option.
- Set the number of bytes after which to force output to emulated stdio: drives.This forcing keeps the memory from being clogged with lots ofpending data for slow devices. Default "on" is the same as "16m".Forced output can be disabled by "off".
Overview of examples:
Get an overview of drives and their addresses
Get info about a particular drive or loaded media
Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use, BD-R for bad block handling
Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use
De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again
Write a single ISO 9660 filesystem image
Write multiple ISO 9660 sessions
Write ISO 9660 session on-the-fly
Write compressed afio archive on-the-fly
Get an overview of drives and their addresses:
$ xorrecord --devices
Get info about a particular drive and loaded media:
$ xorrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -atip -toc --grow_overwriteable_iso
Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use:
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=as_needed -eject
Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use:
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=format_overwrite -eject
This command may also be used to format BD-R media before first use,in order to enable handling of write errors. Several hundred MB of spareblocks will be reserved and write runs on such media will performwith less than half nominal speed.
De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again:
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=deformat
Write a single ISO 9660 filesystem image:
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 speed=12 fs=8m \
blank=as_needed -eject padsize=300k my_image.iso
Write multiple ISO 9660 sessions:
This is possible with all media except minimally blanked DVD-RW and DVD-R DL,which cannot do multi-session.
The first session is written like in the previous example, except thatoption -multi is used. It will contain the files of hard diskdirectory ./tree1 under the ISO 9660 directory /dir1:
$ xorrisofs -o image_1.iso -J -graft-points /dir1=./tree1
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 speed=12 fs=8m \
-multi --grow_overwriteable_iso \
blank=as_needed -eject padsize=300k image_1.iso
For the second session xorrisofs needs to know the -msinfo numbersof the medium. Further it will read data from the medium by using thesystem's read-only CD-ROM driver.
It is advised to load the tray manuallyor via dd by the CD-ROM driver, rather than letting xorrecord do thisby its own SCSI driver. Many system CD-ROM drivers do not take noticeof xorrecord's activities.
$ dd if=/dev/sr0 count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1
Now get the -msinfo numbers:
$ m=$(xorrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -msinfo)
and use them with xorrisofs to add ./tree2 to the image as /dir2:
$ xorrisofs -M /dev/sr0 -C $m -o image_2.iso \
-J -graft-points /dir2=./tree2
Now burn the new session onto the same medium. This time without blanking:
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 speed=12 fs=8m \
-multi --grow_overwriteable_iso \
-eject padsize=300k image_2.iso
Operating systems which mount this medium will read the superblockof the second session and show both directories /dir1 and /dir2.
Write ISO 9660 session on-the-fly:
It is possible to combine the run of xorrisofs
in a pipeline without storing the ISO 9660 image as file on hard disk:
$ xorrisofs -M /dev/sr0 -C $m \
-J -graft-points /dir2=./tree2 \
| xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 speed=12 fs=8m \
-waiti -multi --grow_overwriteable_iso \
-eject padsize=300k -
This is also the main use case of program xorriso
itself,where this run would look like:
$ xorriso -dev /dev/sr0 -joliet on -speed 12 -fs 8m \
-map ./tree2 /dir2 -commit_eject all
Write compressed afio archive on-the-fly:
This is possible with all media except minimally blanked DVD-RW and DVD-R DL.Since the compressed output stream is of very variable speed, a larger fifois advised. Nevertheless, this example is not suitable for very old CD driveswhich have no underrun protection and thus would abort the burn run ontemporary data shortage.
$ find . | afio -oZ - | \
xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 speed=12 fs=64m \
-multi padsize=300k -
afio archives do not contain references to absolute data block addresses. Sothey need no special precautions for multi-session. One may get the sessionstart addresses by option -toc, and then use dd option skip= to begin readingat one of those addresses. E.g. for listing its content:
$ dd if=/dev/sr0 bs=2048 skip=64046 | afio -tvZ -
afio will know when the end of the archive is reached.
If not --no_rc is given as the first argument then xorrecord
attempts on startup to read and execute lines from the following files:
The files are read in the sequence given here, but none of them is requiredto exist. The lines are not interpreted as xorrecord
options butas generic xorriso
commands. See man xorriso.
- For generic xorriso command mode
- Formatting track sources for xorrecord:
- Other programs which burn sessions to optical media
To report bugs, request help, or suggest enhancements for xorriso
, please send electronic mail to the public list <bug-xorrisoAATTgnu.org>.If more privacy is desired, mail to <scdbackupAATTgmx.net>.
Please describe what you expect xorriso
to do,the program arguments or dialog commands by which you tried to achieve it,the messages of xorriso
, and the undesirable outcome of yourprogram run.
Expect to get asked more questions before solutions can be proposed.
Thomas Schmitt <scdbackupAATTgmx.net>
Copyright (c) 2011 - 2018 Thomas Schmitt
Permission is granted to distribute this text freely. It shall only bemodified in sync with the technical properties of xorriso. If you make useof the license to derive modified versions of xorriso then you are entitledto modify this text under that same license.
is in part based on work by Vreixo Formoso who provideslibisofs together with Mario Danic who also leads the libburnia team.Thanks to Andy Polyakov who invented emulated growing,to Derek Foreman and Ben Jansens who once founded libburn.
Compliments towards Joerg Schilling whose cdrtools served me for ten years.
- MMC, Session, Track, Media types:
- Drive preparation and addressing:
- Relation to program xorriso:
- Overview of examples:
- Get an overview of drives and their addresses:
- Get info about a particular drive and loaded media:
- Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use:
- Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use:
- De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again:
- Write a single ISO 9660 filesystem image:
- Write multiple ISO 9660 sessions:
- Write ISO 9660 session on-the-fly:
- Write compressed afio archive on-the-fly:
- Startup files:
- SEE ALSO
This document was created byman2html,using the manual pages.