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MAN page from Trustix openssl-0.9.7m-1tr.i586.rpm

CIPHERS

Section: OpenSSL (1)
Updated: 2006-06-30
Index 

NAME

ciphers - SSL cipher display and cipher list tool. 

SYNOPSIS

openssl ciphers[-v][-ssl2][-ssl3][-tls1][cipherlist] 

DESCRIPTION

The cipherlist command converts OpenSSL cipher lists into orderedSSL cipher preference lists. It can be used as a test tool to determinethe appropriate cipherlist. 

COMMAND OPTIONS

-v
verbose option. List ciphers with a complete description ofprotocol version (SSLv2 or SSLv3; the latter includes TLS), key exchange,authentication, encryption and mac algorithms used along with any key sizerestrictions and whether the algorithm is classed as an ``export'' cipher.Note that without the -v option, ciphers may seem to appear twicein a cipher list; this is when similar ciphers are available forSSL v2 and for SSL v3/TLS v1.
-ssl3
only include SSL v3 ciphers.
-ssl2
only include SSL v2 ciphers.
-tls1
only include TLS v1 ciphers.
-h, -?
print a brief usage message.
cipherlist
a cipher list to convert to a cipher preference list. If it is not includedthen the default cipher list will be used. The format is described below.
 

CIPHER LIST FORMAT

The cipher list consists of one or more cipher strings separated by colons.Commas or spaces are also acceptable separators but colons are normally used.

The actual cipher string can take several different forms.

It can consist of a single cipher suite such as RC4-SHA.

It can represent a list of cipher suites containing a certain algorithm, orcipher suites of a certain type. For example SHA1 represents all cipherssuites using the digest algorithm SHA1 and SSLv3 represents all SSL v3algorithms.

Lists of cipher suites can be combined in a single cipher string using the+ character. This is used as a logical and operation. For exampleSHA1+DES represents all cipher suites containing the SHA1 and the DESalgorithms.

Each cipher string can be optionally preceded by the characters !,- or +.

If ! is used then the ciphers are permanently deleted from the list.The ciphers deleted can never reappear in the list even if they areexplicitly stated.

If - is used then the ciphers are deleted from the list, but some orall of the ciphers can be added again by later options.

If + is used then the ciphers are moved to the end of the list. Thisoption doesn't add any new ciphers it just moves matching existing ones.

If none of these characters is present then the string is just interpretedas a list of ciphers to be appended to the current preference list. If thelist includes any ciphers already present they will be ignored: that is theywill not moved to the end of the list.

Additionally the cipher string @STRENGTH can be used at any point to sortthe current cipher list in order of encryption algorithm key length. 

CIPHER STRINGS

The following is a list of all permitted cipher strings and their meanings.
DEFAULT
the default cipher list. This is determined at compile time and is normallyALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+SSLv2:@STRENGTH. This must be the first cipher stringspecified.
COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT
the ciphers included in ALL, but not enabled by default. Currentlythis is ADH. Note that this rule does not cover eNULL, which isnot included by ALL (use COMPLEMENTOFALL if necessary).
ALL
all ciphers suites except the eNULL ciphers which must be explicitly enabled.
COMPLEMENTOFALL
the cipher suites not enabled by ALL, currently being eNULL.
HIGH
``high'' encryption cipher suites. This currently means those with key lengths largerthan 128 bits, and some cipher suites with 128-bit keys.
MEDIUM
``medium'' encryption cipher suites, currently some of those using 128 bit encryption.
LOW
``low'' encryption cipher suites, currently those using 64 or 56 bit encryption algorithmsbut excluding export cipher suites.
EXP, EXPORT
export encryption algorithms. Including 40 and 56 bits algorithms.
EXPORT40
40 bit export encryption algorithms
EXPORT56
56 bit export encryption algorithms.
eNULL, NULL
the ``NULL'' ciphers that is those offering no encryption. Because these offer noencryption at all and are a security risk they are disabled unless explicitlyincluded.
aNULL
the cipher suites offering no authentication. This is currently the anonymousDH algorithms. These cipher suites are vulnerable to a ``man in the middle''attack and so their use is normally discouraged.
kRSA, RSA
cipher suites using RSA key exchange.
kEDH
cipher suites using ephemeral DH key agreement.
kDHr, kDHd
cipher suites using DH key agreement and DH certificates signed by CAs with RSAand DSS keys respectively. Not implemented.
aRSA
cipher suites using RSA authentication, i.e. the certificates carry RSA keys.
aDSS, DSS
cipher suites using DSS authentication, i.e. the certificates carry DSS keys.
aDH
cipher suites effectively using DH authentication, i.e. the certificates carryDH keys. Not implemented.
kFZA, aFZA, eFZA, FZA
ciphers suites using FORTEZZA key exchange, authentication, encryption or allFORTEZZA algorithms. Not implemented.
TLSv1, SSLv3, SSLv2
TLS v1.0, SSL v3.0 or SSL v2.0 cipher suites respectively.
DH
cipher suites using DH, including anonymous DH.
ADH
anonymous DH cipher suites.
AES
cipher suites using AES.
3DES
cipher suites using triple DES.
DES
cipher suites using DES (not triple DES).
RC4
cipher suites using RC4.
RC2
cipher suites using RC2.
IDEA
cipher suites using IDEA.
MD5
cipher suites using MD5.
SHA1, SHA
cipher suites using SHA1.
 

CIPHER SUITE NAMES

The following lists give the SSL or TLS cipher suites names from therelevant specification and their OpenSSL equivalents. It should be noted,that several cipher suite names do not include the authentication used,e.g. DES-CBC3-SHA. In these cases, RSA authentication is used. 

SSL v3.0 cipher suites.

 SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5                   NULL-MD5 SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA                   NULL-SHA SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5          EXP-RC4-MD5 SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5                RC4-MD5 SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA                RC4-SHA SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5      EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5 SSL_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA               IDEA-CBC-SHA SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA       EXP-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA                DES-CBC-SHA SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA           DES-CBC3-SHA

 SSL_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA    Not implemented. SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA             Not implemented. SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA        Not implemented. SSL_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA    Not implemented. SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA             Not implemented. SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA        Not implemented. SSL_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            EDH-DSS-CBC-SHA SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA SSL_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA

 SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5      EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5 SSL_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5            ADH-RC4-MD5 SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            ADH-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA

 SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_NULL_SHA          Not implemented. SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_FORTEZZA_CBC_SHA  Not implemented. SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA       Not implemented.
 

TLS v1.0 cipher suites.

 TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5                   NULL-MD5 TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA                   NULL-SHA TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5          EXP-RC4-MD5 TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5                RC4-MD5 TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA                RC4-SHA TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5      EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5 TLS_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA               IDEA-CBC-SHA TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA       EXP-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA                DES-CBC-SHA TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA           DES-CBC3-SHA

 TLS_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA    Not implemented. TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA             Not implemented. TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA        Not implemented. TLS_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA    Not implemented. TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA             Not implemented. TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA        Not implemented. TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            EDH-DSS-CBC-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA TLS_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA

 TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5      EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5 TLS_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5            ADH-RC4-MD5 TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            ADH-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA
 

AES ciphersuites from RFC3268, extending TLS v1.0

 TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA            AES128-SHA TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA            AES256-SHA

 TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA         DH-DSS-AES128-SHA TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA         DH-DSS-AES256-SHA TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA         DH-RSA-AES128-SHA TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA         DH-RSA-AES256-SHA

 TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA        DHE-DSS-AES128-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA        DHE-DSS-AES256-SHA TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA        DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA        DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA

 TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA        ADH-AES128-SHA TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA        ADH-AES256-SHA
 

Additional Export 1024 and other cipher suites

Note: these ciphers can also be used in SSL v3.

 TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA     EXP1024-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA      EXP1024-RC4-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT1024_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EXP1024-DHE-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA  EXP1024-DHE-DSS-RC4-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_RC4_128_SHA            DHE-DSS-RC4-SHA
 

SSL v2.0 cipher suites.

 SSL_CK_RC4_128_WITH_MD5                 RC4-MD5 SSL_CK_RC4_128_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5        EXP-RC4-MD5 SSL_CK_RC2_128_CBC_WITH_MD5             RC2-MD5 SSL_CK_RC2_128_CBC_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5    EXP-RC2-MD5 SSL_CK_IDEA_128_CBC_WITH_MD5            IDEA-CBC-MD5 SSL_CK_DES_64_CBC_WITH_MD5              DES-CBC-MD5 SSL_CK_DES_192_EDE3_CBC_WITH_MD5        DES-CBC3-MD5
 

NOTES

The non-ephemeral DH modes are currently unimplemented in OpenSSLbecause there is no support for DH certificates.

Some compiled versions of OpenSSL may not include all the cipherslisted here because some ciphers were excluded at compile time. 

EXAMPLES

Verbose listing of all OpenSSL ciphers including NULL ciphers:

 openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:eNULL'

Include all ciphers except NULL and anonymous DH then sort bystrength:

 openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:!ADH:@STRENGTH'

Include only 3DES ciphers and then place RSA ciphers last:

 openssl ciphers -v '3DES:+RSA'

Include all RC4 ciphers but leave out those without authentication:

 openssl ciphers -v 'RC4:!COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT'

Include all chiphers with RSA authentication but leave out ciphers withoutencryption.

 openssl ciphers -v 'RSA:!COMPLEMENTOFALL'
 

SEE ALSO

s_client(1), s_server(1), ssl(3) 

HISTORY

The COMPLENTOFALL and COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT selection options wereadded in version 0.9.7.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
COMMAND OPTIONS
CIPHER LIST FORMAT
CIPHER STRINGS
CIPHER SUITE NAMES
SSL v3.0 cipher suites.
TLS v1.0 cipher suites.
AES ciphersuites from RFC3268, extending TLS v1.0
Additional Export 1024 and other cipher suites
SSL v2.0 cipher suites.
NOTES
EXAMPLES
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

This document was created byman2html,using the manual pages.