MAN page from Trustix openssl-0.9.7m-1tr.i586.rpm

# CIPHERS

Section: OpenSSL (1)

Updated: 2006-06-30

Index ## NAME

ciphers - SSL cipher display and cipher list tool.

## SYNOPSIS

**openssl** **ciphers**[

**-v**][

**-ssl2**][

**-ssl3**][

**-tls1**][

**cipherlist**]

## DESCRIPTION

The

**cipherlist** command converts OpenSSL cipher lists into ordered

SSL cipher preference lists. It can be used as a test tool to determinethe appropriate cipherlist.

## COMMAND OPTIONS

**-v**- verbose option. List ciphers with a complete description ofprotocol version (SSLv2 or SSLv3; the latter includes TLS), key exchange,authentication, encryption and mac algorithms used along with any key sizerestrictions and whether the algorithm is classed as an ``export'' cipher.Note that without the
**-v** option, ciphers may seem to appear twicein a cipher list; this is when similar ciphers are available forSSL v2 and for SSL v3/TLS v1. **-ssl3**- only include SSL v3 ciphers.
**-ssl2**- only include SSL v2 ciphers.
**-tls1**- only include TLS v1 ciphers.
**-h**, **-?**- print a brief usage message.
**cipherlist**- a cipher list to convert to a cipher preference list. If it is not includedthen the default cipher list will be used. The format is described below.

## CIPHER LIST FORMAT

The cipher list consists of one or more

*cipher strings* separated by colons.Commas or spaces are also acceptable separators but colons are normally used.

The actual cipher string can take several different forms.

It can consist of a single cipher suite such as **RC4-SHA**.

It can represent a list of cipher suites containing a certain algorithm, orcipher suites of a certain type. For example **SHA1** represents all cipherssuites using the digest algorithm SHA1 and **SSLv3** represents all SSL v3algorithms.

Lists of cipher suites can be combined in a single cipher string using the**+** character. This is used as a logical **and** operation. For example**SHA1+DES** represents all cipher suites containing the SHA1 **and** the DESalgorithms.

Each cipher string can be optionally preceded by the characters **!**,**-** or **+**.

If **!** is used then the ciphers are permanently deleted from the list.The ciphers deleted can never reappear in the list even if they areexplicitly stated.

If **-** is used then the ciphers are deleted from the list, but some orall of the ciphers can be added again by later options.

If **+** is used then the ciphers are moved to the end of the list. Thisoption doesn't add any new ciphers it just moves matching existing ones.

If none of these characters is present then the string is just interpretedas a list of ciphers to be appended to the current preference list. If thelist includes any ciphers already present they will be ignored: that is theywill not moved to the end of the list.

Additionally the cipher string **@STRENGTH** can be used at any point to sortthe current cipher list in order of encryption algorithm key length.

## CIPHER STRINGS

The following is a list of all permitted cipher strings and their meanings.

**DEFAULT**- the default cipher list. This is determined at compile time and is normally
**ALL:****!ADH:RC4+RSA:+SSLv2:@STRENGTH**. This must be the first cipher stringspecified. **COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT**- the ciphers included in
**ALL**, but not enabled by default. Currentlythis is **ADH**. Note that this rule does not cover **eNULL**, which isnot included by **ALL** (use **COMPLEMENTOFALL** if necessary). **ALL**- all ciphers suites except the
**eNULL** ciphers which must be explicitly enabled. **COMPLEMENTOFALL**- the cipher suites not enabled by
**ALL**, currently being **eNULL**. **HIGH**- ``high'' encryption cipher suites. This currently means those with key lengths largerthan 128 bits, and some cipher suites with 128-bit keys.
**MEDIUM**- ``medium'' encryption cipher suites, currently some of those using 128 bit encryption.
**LOW**- ``low'' encryption cipher suites, currently those using 64 or 56 bit encryption algorithmsbut excluding export cipher suites.
**EXP**, **EXPORT**- export encryption algorithms. Including 40 and 56 bits algorithms.
**EXPORT40**- 40 bit export encryption algorithms
**EXPORT56**- 56 bit export encryption algorithms.
**eNULL**, **NULL**- the ``NULL'' ciphers that is those offering no encryption. Because these offer noencryption at all and are a security risk they are disabled unless explicitlyincluded.
**aNULL**- the cipher suites offering no authentication. This is currently the anonymousDH algorithms. These cipher suites are vulnerable to a ``man in the middle''attack and so their use is normally discouraged.
**kRSA**, **RSA**- cipher suites using RSA key exchange.
**kEDH**- cipher suites using ephemeral DH key agreement.
**kDHr**, **kDHd**- cipher suites using DH key agreement and DH certificates signed by CAs with RSAand DSS keys respectively. Not implemented.
**aRSA**- cipher suites using RSA authentication, i.e. the certificates carry RSA keys.
**aDSS**, **DSS**- cipher suites using DSS authentication, i.e. the certificates carry DSS keys.
**aDH**- cipher suites effectively using DH authentication, i.e. the certificates carryDH keys. Not implemented.
**kFZA**, **aFZA**, **eFZA**, **FZA**- ciphers suites using FORTEZZA key exchange, authentication, encryption or allFORTEZZA algorithms. Not implemented.
**TLSv1**, **SSLv3**, **SSLv2**- TLS v1.0, SSL v3.0 or SSL v2.0 cipher suites respectively.
**DH**- cipher suites using DH, including anonymous DH.
**ADH**- anonymous DH cipher suites.
**AES**- cipher suites using AES.
**3DES**- cipher suites using triple DES.
**DES**- cipher suites using DES (not triple DES).
**RC4**- cipher suites using RC4.
**RC2**- cipher suites using RC2.
**IDEA**- cipher suites using IDEA.
**MD5**- cipher suites using MD5.
**SHA1**, **SHA**- cipher suites using SHA1.

## CIPHER SUITE NAMES

The following lists give the

SSL or

TLS cipher suites names from therelevant specification and their OpenSSL equivalents. It should be noted,that several cipher suite names do not include the authentication used,e.g.

DES-CBC3-SHA. In these cases,

RSA authentication is used.

## SSL v3.0 cipher suites.

SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5 NULL-MD5 SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA NULL-SHA SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5 EXP-RC4-MD5 SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 RC4-MD5 SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA RC4-SHA SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5 EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5 SSL_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA IDEA-CBC-SHA SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXP-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA DES-CBC-SHA SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA DES-CBC3-SHA

SSL_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA Not implemented. SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA Not implemented. SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA Not implemented. SSL_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA Not implemented. SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA Not implemented. SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA Not implemented. SSL_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EDH-DSS-CBC-SHA SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA SSL_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA

SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5 EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5 SSL_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 ADH-RC4-MD5 SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA ADH-DES-CBC-SHA SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA

SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_NULL_SHA Not implemented. SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_FORTEZZA_CBC_SHA Not implemented. SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA Not implemented.

## TLS v1.0 cipher suites.

TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5 NULL-MD5 TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA NULL-SHA TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5 EXP-RC4-MD5 TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 RC4-MD5 TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA RC4-SHA TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5 EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5 TLS_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA IDEA-CBC-SHA TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXP-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA DES-CBC-SHA TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA DES-CBC3-SHA

TLS_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA Not implemented. TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA Not implemented. TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA Not implemented. TLS_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA Not implemented. TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA Not implemented. TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA Not implemented. TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EDH-DSS-CBC-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA TLS_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA

TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5 EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5 TLS_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 ADH-RC4-MD5 TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA ADH-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA

## AES ciphersuites from RFC3268, extending TLS v1.0

TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA AES128-SHA TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA AES256-SHA

TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA DH-DSS-AES128-SHA TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA DH-DSS-AES256-SHA TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA DH-RSA-AES128-SHA TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA DH-RSA-AES256-SHA

TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA DHE-DSS-AES128-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA DHE-DSS-AES256-SHA TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA

TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA ADH-AES128-SHA TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA ADH-AES256-SHA

## Additional Export 1024 and other cipher suites

Note: these ciphers can also be used in

SSL v3.

TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EXP1024-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA EXP1024-RC4-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT1024_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EXP1024-DHE-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA EXP1024-DHE-DSS-RC4-SHA TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_RC4_128_SHA DHE-DSS-RC4-SHA

## SSL v2.0 cipher suites.

SSL_CK_RC4_128_WITH_MD5 RC4-MD5 SSL_CK_RC4_128_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5 EXP-RC4-MD5 SSL_CK_RC2_128_CBC_WITH_MD5 RC2-MD5 SSL_CK_RC2_128_CBC_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5 EXP-RC2-MD5 SSL_CK_IDEA_128_CBC_WITH_MD5 IDEA-CBC-MD5 SSL_CK_DES_64_CBC_WITH_MD5 DES-CBC-MD5 SSL_CK_DES_192_EDE3_CBC_WITH_MD5 DES-CBC3-MD5

## NOTES

The non-ephemeral

DH modes are currently unimplemented in OpenSSLbecause there is no support for

DH certificates.

Some compiled versions of OpenSSL may not include all the cipherslisted here because some ciphers were excluded at compile time.

## EXAMPLES

Verbose listing of all OpenSSL ciphers including

NULL ciphers:

openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:eNULL'

Include all ciphers except NULL and anonymous DH then sort bystrength:

openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:!ADH:@STRENGTH'

Include only 3DES ciphers and then place RSA ciphers last:

openssl ciphers -v '3DES:+RSA'

Include all RC4 ciphers but leave out those without authentication:

openssl ciphers -v 'RC4:!COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT'

Include all chiphers with RSA authentication but leave out ciphers withoutencryption.

openssl ciphers -v 'RSA:!COMPLEMENTOFALL'

## SEE ALSO

*s_client*(1),

*s_server*(1),

*ssl*(3)

## HISTORY

The

**COMPLENTOFALL** and

**COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT** selection options wereadded in version 0.9.7.

## Index

- NAME
- SYNOPSIS
- DESCRIPTION
- COMMAND OPTIONS
- CIPHER LIST FORMAT
- CIPHER STRINGS
- CIPHER SUITE NAMES
- SSL v3.0 cipher suites.
- TLS v1.0 cipher suites.
- AES ciphersuites from RFC3268, extending TLS v1.0
- Additional Export 1024 and other cipher suites
- SSL v2.0 cipher suites.
- NOTES
- EXAMPLES
- SEE ALSO
- HISTORY

This document was created byman2html,using the manual pages.