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MAN page from Trustix busybox-0.51.062801-8tr.i586.rpm

BUSYBOX

Section: BusyBox (1)
Updated: 2003-10-30
Index 

NAME

BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux 

SYNTAX

 BusyBox <function> [arguments...]  # or

 <function> [arguments...]          # if symlinked
 

DESCRIPTION

BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a singlesmall executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most of the utilitiesyou usually find in fileutils, shellutils, findutils, textutils, grep, gzip,tar, etc. BusyBox provides a fairly complete POSIX environment for any smallor embedded system. The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options thantheir full-featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included providethe expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU counterparts.

BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources in mind.It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or exclude commands (orfeatures) at compile time. This makes it easy to customize your embeddedsystems. To create a working system, just add a kernel, a shell (such as ash),and an editor (such as elvis-tiny or ae). 

USAGE

When you create a link to BusyBox for the function you wish to use, when BusyBoxis called using that link it will behave as if the command itself has been invoked.

For example, entering

        ln -s ./BusyBox ls        ./ls

will cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls' (if the 'ls' command has been compiledinto BusyBox).

You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing the command as an argument on thecommand line. For example, entering

        ./BusyBox ls

will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.  

COMMON OPTIONS

Most BusyBox commands support the -h option to provide aterse runtime description of their behavior.  

COMMANDS

Currently defined functions include:

adjtimex, ar, basename, busybox, cat, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, chvt, clear,cmp, cp, cpio, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, df, dirname, dmesg, dos2unix, dpkg,dpkg-deb, du, dumpkmap, dutmp, echo, expr, false, fbset, fdflush, find, free,freeramdisk, fsck.minix, getopt, grep, gunzip, gzip, halt, head, hostid,hostname, id, ifconfig, init, insmod, kill, killall, klogd, length, ln,loadacm, loadfont, loadkmap, logger, logname, ls, lsmod, makedevs, md5sum,mkdir, mkfifo, mkfs.minix, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, more, mount, mt, mv, nc,nslookup, ping, pivot_root, poweroff, printf, ps, pwd, rdate, readlink, reboot,renice, reset, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm2cpio, rpmunpack, sed, setkeycodes,sh, sleep, sort, stty, swapoff, swapon, sync, syslogd, tail, tar, tee, telnet,test, tftp, touch, tr, true, tty, umount, uname, uniq, unix2dos, update, uptime,usleep, uudecode, uuencode, watchdog, wc, wget, which, whoami, xargs, yes, zcat,[

adjtimex
adjtimex [-q] [-o offset] [-f frequency] [-p timeconstant] [-t tick]

Reads and optionally sets system timebase parameters.See adjtimex(2).

Options:

        -q              quiet mode - do not print        -o offset       time offset, microseconds        -f frequency    frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)                        (positive values make the system clock run fast)        -t tick         microseconds per tick, usually 10000        -p timeconstant

-------------------------------

ar
ar -[ov][ptx] ARCHIVE FILES

Extract or list FILES from an ar archive.

Options:

        -o              preserve original dates        -p              extract to stdout        -t              list        -x              extract        -v              verbosely list files processed

-------------------------------

basename
basename FILE [SUFFIX]

Strips directory path and suffixes from FILE.If specified, also removes any trailing SUFFIX.

Example:

        $ basename /usr/local/bin/foo        foo        $ basename /usr/local/bin/        bin        $ basename /foo/bar.txt .txt        bar

-------------------------------

cat
cat [FILE]...

Concatenates FILE(s) and prints them to stdout.

Example:

        $ cat /proc/uptime        110716.72 17.67

-------------------------------

chgrp
chgrp [OPTION]... GROUP FILE...

Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP.

Options:

        -R      Changes files and directories recursively.

Example:

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo        -r--r--r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo        $ chgrp root /tmp/foo        $ ls -l /tmp/foo        -r--r--r--    1 andersen root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

-------------------------------

chmod
chmod [-R] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of thesymbols +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst.

Options:

        -R      Changes files and directories recursively.

Example:

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo        -rw-rw-r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo        $ chmod u+x /tmp/foo        $ ls -l /tmp/foo        -rwxrw-r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo*        $ chmod 444 /tmp/foo        $ ls -l /tmp/foo        -r--r--r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

-------------------------------

chown
chown [ -Rh ]... OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...

Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP.

Options:

        -R      Changes files and directories recursively.        -h      Do not dereference symbolic links.

Example:

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo        -r--r--r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo        $ chown root /tmp/foo        $ ls -l /tmp/foo        -r--r--r--    1 root     andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo        $ chown root.root /tmp/foo        ls -l /tmp/foo        -r--r--r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

-------------------------------

chroot
chroot NEWROOT [COMMAND...]

Run COMMAND with root directory set to NEWROOT.

Example:

        $ ls -l /bin/ls        lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root          12 Apr 13 00:46 /bin/ls -> /BusyBox        $ mount /dev/hdc1 /mnt -t minix        $ chroot /mnt        $ ls -l /bin/ls        -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        40816 Feb  5 07:45 /bin/ls*

-------------------------------

chvt
chvt N

Changes the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN

-------------------------------

clear
clear         

Clear screen.

-------------------------------

cmp
cmp FILE1 [FILE2]

        -s      quiet mode - do not printCompare files.

-------------------------------

cp
cp [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST

Copies SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

        -a      Same as -dpR        -d      Preserves links        -p      Preserves file attributes if possible        -f      force (implied; ignored) - always set        -R      Copies directories recursively

-------------------------------

cpio
cpio -[dimtuv][F cpiofile]

Extract or list files from a cpio archiveMain operation mode:

        d               make leading directories        i               extract        m               preserve mtime        t               list        u               unconditional overwrite         F               input from file

-------------------------------

cut
cut [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Prints selected fields from each input FILE to standard output.

Options:

        -b LIST         Output only bytes from LIST        -c LIST         Output only characters from LIST        -d CHAR         Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter        -s              Output only the lines containing delimiter        -f N            Print only these fields        -n              Ignored

Example:

        $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 1 -d ' '        Hello        $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 2 -d ' '        world

-------------------------------

date
date [OPTION]... [+FORMAT]

Displays the current time in the given FORMAT, or sets the system date.

Options:

        -R              Outputs RFC-822 compliant date string        -d STRING       display time described by STRING, not `now'        -s              Sets time described by STRING        -u              Prints or sets Coordinated Universal Time

Example:

        $ date        Wed Apr 12 18:52:41 MDT 2000

-------------------------------

dc
dc expression ...

This is a Tiny RPN calculator that understands thefollowing operations: +, -, /, *, and, or, not, eor.i.e., 'dc 2 2 add' -> 4, and 'dc 8 8 \* 2 2 + /' -> 16

Example:

        $ dc 2 2 +        4        $ dc 8 8 * 2 2 + /        16        $ dc 0 1 and        0        $ dc 0 1 or        1        $ echo 72 9 div 8 mul | dc        64

-------------------------------

dd
dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N]         [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|sync]

Copy a file, converting and formatting according to options

        if=FILE         read from FILE instead of stdin        of=FILE         write to FILE instead of stdout        bs=N            read and write N bytes at a time        count=N         copy only N input blocks        skip=N          skip N input blocks        seek=N          skip N output blocks        conv=notrunc    don't truncate output file        conv=sync       pad blocks with zeros

Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k (x1024),MD (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G (x1073741824).

Example:

        $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram1 bs=1M count=4        4+0 records in        4+0 records out

-------------------------------

deallocvt
deallocvt N

Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

-------------------------------

df
df [-hmk] [FILESYSTEM ...]

Print the filesystem space used and space available.

Options:

        -h      print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )        -m      print sizes in megabytes        -k      print sizes in kilobytes(default)

Example:

        $ df        Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on        /dev/sda3              8690864   8553540    137324  98% /        /dev/sda1                64216     36364     27852  57% /boot        $ df /dev/sda3        Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on        /dev/sda3              8690864   8553540    137324  98% /

-------------------------------

dirname
dirname [FILENAME ...]

Strips non-directory suffix from FILENAME

Example:

        $ dirname /tmp/foo        /tmp        $ dirname /tmp/foo/        /tmp

-------------------------------

dmesg
dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]

Prints or controls the kernel ring buffer

Options:

        -c              Clears the ring buffer's contents after printing        -n LEVEL        Sets console logging level        -s SIZE         Use a buffer of size SIZE

-------------------------------

dos2unix
dos2unix [option] [FILE]

Converts FILE from dos format to unix format. When no optionis given, the input is converted to the opposite output format.When no file is given, uses stdin for input and stdout for output.

Options:

        -u      output will be in UNIX format        -d      output will be in DOS format

-------------------------------

dpkg
dpkg [-i|-r|--unpack|--configure] my.deb

WORK IN PROGRESS, only useful for debian-installer

-------------------------------

dpkg_deb
dpkg_deb [-cefItxX] FILE [argument]

Perform actions on debian packages (.debs)

Options:

        -c      List contents of filesystem tree        -e      Extract control files to [argument] directory        -f      Display control field name starting with [argument]        -I      Display the control filenamed [argument]        -t      Extract filesystem tree to stdout in tar format        -x      Extract packages filesystem tree to directory        -X      Verbose extract

Example:

        $ dpkg-deb -X ./busybox_0.48-1_i386.deb /tmp

-------------------------------

du
du [-lshmk] [FILE]...

Summarizes disk space used for each FILE and/or directory.Disk space is printed in units of 1024 bytes.

Options:

        -l      count sizes many times if hard linked        -s      display only a total for each argument        -h      print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )        -m      print sizes in megabytes        -k      print sizes in kilobytes(default)

Example:

        $ du        16      ./CVS        12      ./kernel-patches/CVS        80      ./kernel-patches        12      ./tests/CVS        36      ./tests        12      ./scripts/CVS        16      ./scripts        12      ./docs/CVS        104     ./docs        2417    .

-------------------------------

dumpkmap
dumpkmap > keymap

Prints out a binary keyboard translation table to standard output.

Example:

        $ dumpkmap > keymap

-------------------------------

dutmp
dutmp [FILE]

Dump utmp file format (pipe delimited) from FILEor stdin to stdout. (i.e., 'dutmp /var/run/utmp')

Example:

        $ dutmp /var/run/utmp        8|7||si|||0|0|0|955637625|760097|0        2|0|~|~~|reboot||0|0|0|955637625|782235|0        1|20020|~|~~|runlevel||0|0|0|955637625|800089|0        8|125||l4|||0|0|0|955637629|998367|0        6|245|tty1|1|LOGIN||0|0|0|955637630|998974|0        6|246|tty2|2|LOGIN||0|0|0|955637630|999498|0        7|336|pts/0|vt00andersen|andersen|:0.0|0|0|0|955637763|0|0

-------------------------------

echo
echo [-neE] [ARG ...]

Prints the specified ARGs to stdout

Options:

        -n      suppress trailing newline        -e      interpret backslash-escaped characters (i.e., \t=tab)        -E      disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters

Example:

        $ echo "Erik is cool"        Erik is cool        $  echo -e "Erik\nis\ncool"        Erik        is        cool        $ echo "Erik\nis\ncool"        Erik\nis\ncool

-------------------------------

env
env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [command]

Prints the current environment or runs a program after settingup the specified environment.

Options:

        -, -i   start with an empty environment        -u      remove variable from the environment

-------------------------------

expr
expr EXPRESSION

Prints the value of EXPRESSION to standard output.

EXPRESSION may be:

        ARG1 |  ARG2    ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2        ARG1 &  ARG2    ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0        ARG1 <  ARG2    ARG1 is less than ARG2        ARG1 <= ARG2    ARG1 is less than or equal to ARG2        ARG1 =  ARG2    ARG1 is equal to ARG2        ARG1 != ARG2    ARG1 is unequal to ARG2        ARG1 >= ARG2    ARG1 is greater than or equal to ARG2        ARG1 >  ARG2    ARG1 is greater than ARG2        ARG1 +  ARG2    arithmetic sum of ARG1 and ARG2        ARG1 -  ARG2    arithmetic difference of ARG1 and ARG2        ARG1 *  ARG2    arithmetic product of ARG1 and ARG2        ARG1 /  ARG2    arithmetic quotient of ARG1 divided by ARG2        ARG1 %  ARG2    arithmetic remainder of ARG1 divided by ARG2        STRING : REGEXP             anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING        match STRING REGEXP         same as STRING : REGEXP        substr STRING POS LENGTH    substring of STRING, POS counted from 1        index STRING CHARS          index in STRING where any CHARS is found,                                    or 0        length STRING               length of STRING        quote TOKEN                 interpret TOKEN as a string, even if                                    it is a keyword like `match' or an                                    operator like `/'        ( EXPRESSION )              value of EXPRESSION

Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells.Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, elselexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between \( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the number of characters matched or 0.

-------------------------------

false
false         

Return an exit code of FALSE (1).

Example:

        $ false        $ echo $?        1

-------------------------------

fbset
fbset [options] [mode]

Show and modify frame buffer settings

Example:

        $ fbset        mode "1024x768-76"                # D: 78.653 MHz, H: 59.949 kHz, V: 75.694 Hz                geometry 1024 768 1024 768 16                timings 12714 128 32 16 4 128 4                accel false                rgba 5/11,6/5,5/0,0/0        endmode

-------------------------------

fdflush
fdflush DEVICE

Forces floppy disk drive to detect disk change

-------------------------------

find
find [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]

Search for files in a directory hierarchy. The default PATH isthe current directory; default EXPRESSION is '-print'

EXPRESSION may consist of:

        -follow         Dereference symbolic links.        -name PATTERN   File name (leading directories removed) matches PATTERN.        -print          Print (default and assumed).

        -type X         Filetype matches X (where X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)        -perm PERMS     Permissions match any of (+NNN); all of (-NNN);                        or exactly (NNN)        -mtime TIME     Modified time is greater than (+N); less than (-N);                        or exactly (N) days

Example:

        $ find / -name /etc/passwd        /etc/passwd

-------------------------------

free
free  

Displays the amount of free and used system memory

Example:

        $ free                      total         used         free       shared      buffers          Mem:       257628       248724         8904        59644        93124         Swap:       128516         8404       120112        Total:       386144       257128       129016

-------------------------------

freeramdisk
freeramdisk DEVICE

Frees all memory used by the specified ramdisk.

Example:

        $ freeramdisk /dev/ram2

-------------------------------

fsck_minix
fsck_minix [-larvsmf] /dev/name

Performs a consistency check for MINIX filesystems.

Options:

        -l      Lists all filenames        -r      Perform interactive repairs        -a      Perform automatic repairs        -v      verbose        -s      Outputs super-block information        -m      Activates MINIX-like "mode not cleared" warnings        -f      Force file system check.

-------------------------------

getopt
getopt [OPTIONS]...

Parse command options

        -a, --alternative               Allow long options starting with single -        -l, --longoptions=longopts      Long options to be recognized        -n, --name=progname             The name under which errors are reported        -o, --options=optstring Short options to be recognized        -q, --quiet                     Disable error reporting by getopt(3)        -Q, --quiet-output              No normal output        -s, --shell=shell               Set shell quoting conventions        -T, --test                      Test for getopt(1) version        -u, --unqote                    Do not quote the output

Example:

        $ cat getopt.test        #!/bin/sh        GETOPT=`getopt -o ab:c:: --long a-long,b-long:,c-long:: \               -n 'example.busybox' -- "$@"`        if [ $? != 0 ] ; then  exit 1 ; fi        eval set -- "$GETOPT"        while true ; do         case $1 in           -a|--a-long) echo "Option a" ; shift ;;           -b|--b-long) echo "Option b, argument `$2'" ; shift 2 ;;           -c|--c-long)             case "$2" in               "") echo "Option c, no argument"; shift 2 ;;               *)  echo "Option c, argument `$2'" ; shift 2 ;;             esac ;;           --) shift ; break ;;           *) echo "Internal error!" ; exit 1 ;;         esac        done

-------------------------------

grep
grep [-ihHnqvs] PATTERN [FILEs...]

Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input.

Options:

        -H      prefix output lines with filename where match was found        -h      suppress the prefixing filename on output        -i      ignore case distinctions        -l      list names of files that match        -n      print line number with output lines        -q      be quiet. Returns 0 if result was found, 1 otherwise        -v      select non-matching lines        -s      suppress file open/read error messages

Example:

        $ grep root /etc/passwd        root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash        $ grep ^[rR]oo. /etc/passwd        root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash

-------------------------------

gunzip
gunzip [OPTION]... FILE

Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-').

Options:

        -c      Write output to standard output        -t      Test compressed file integrity

Example:

        $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen   557009 Apr 11 10:55 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz        $ gunzip /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz        $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar

-------------------------------

gzip
gzip [OPTION]... FILE

Compress FILE with maximum compression.When FILE is '-', reads standard input. Implies -c.

Options:

        -c      Write output to standard output instead of FILE.gz        -d      decompress

Example:

        $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/busybox.tar        $ gzip /tmp/busybox.tar        $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen   554058 Apr 14 17:49 /tmp/busybox.tar.gz

-------------------------------

halt
halt  

Halt the system.

-------------------------------

head
head [OPTION] [FILE]...

Print first 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving thefile name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Options:

        -n NUM          Print first NUM lines instead of first 10

Example:

        $ head -n 2 /etc/passwd        root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash        daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/bin/sh

-------------------------------

hostid
hostid        

Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine.

-------------------------------

hostname
hostname [OPTION] {hostname | -F FILE}

Get or set the hostname or DNS domain name. If a hostname is given(or FILE with the -F parameter), the host name will be set.

Options:

        -s              Short        -i              Addresses for the hostname        -d              DNS domain name        -F, --file FILE Use the contents of FILE to specify the hostname

Example:

        $ hostname        sage

-------------------------------

id
id [OPTIONS]... [USERNAME]

Print information for USERNAME or the current user

Options:

        -g      prints only the group ID        -u      prints only the user ID        -n      print a name instead of a number (with for -ug)        -r      prints the real user ID instead of the effective ID (with -ug)

Example:

        $ id        uid=1000(andersen) gid=1000(andersen)

-------------------------------

ifconfig
ifconfig [-a] <interface> [<address>]

configure a network interface

Options:

        [[-]broadcast [<address>]]  [[-]pointopoint [<address>]]        [netmask <address>]  [dstaddr <address>]        [outfill <NN>] [keepalive <NN>]        [hw ether <address>]  [metric <NN>]  [mtu <NN>]        [[-]trailers]  [[-]arp]  [[-]allmulti]        [multicast]  [[-]promisc]  [txqueuelen <NN>]  [[-]dynamic]        [mem_start <NN>]  [io_addr <NN>]  [irq <NN>]        [up|down] ...

-------------------------------

init
init  

Init is the parent of all processes.

This version of init is designed to be run only by the kernel.

BusyBox init doesn't support multiple runlevels. The runlevels field ofthe /etc/inittab file is completely ignored by BusyBox init. If you want runlevels, use sysvinit.

BusyBox init works just fine without an inittab. If no inittab is found, it has the following default behavior:

        ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS        ::askfirst:/bin/sh        ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot        ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a        ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r

if it detects that /dev/console is _not_ a serial console, it will also run:

        tty2::askfirst:/bin/sh        tty3::askfirst:/bin/sh        tty4::askfirst:/bin/sh

If you choose to use an /etc/inittab file, the inittab entry format is as follows:

        <id>:<runlevels>:<action>:<process>

        <id>:

                WARNING: This field has a non-traditional meaning for BusyBox init!                The id field is used by BusyBox init to specify the controlling tty for                the specified process to run on.  The contents of this field are                appended to "/dev/" and used as-is.  There is no need for this field to                be unique, although if it isn't you may have strange results.  If this                field is left blank, the controlling tty is set to the console.  Also                note that if BusyBox detects that a serial console is in use, then only                entries whose controlling tty is either the serial console or /dev/null                will be run.  BusyBox init does nothing with utmp.  We don't need no                stinkin' utmp.

        <runlevels>:

                The runlevels field is completely ignored.

        <action>:

                Valid actions include: sysinit, respawn, askfirst, wait,                 once, ctrlaltdel, and shutdown.

                The available actions can be classified into two groups: actions                that are run only once, and actions that are re-run when the specified                process exits.

                Run only-once actions:

                        'sysinit' is the first item run on boot.  init waits until all                        sysinit actions are completed before continuing.  Following the                        completion of all sysinit actions, all 'wait' actions are run.                        'wait' actions, like  'sysinit' actions, cause init to wait until                        the specified task completes.  'once' actions are asynchronous,                        therefore, init does not wait for them to complete.  'ctrlaltdel'                        actions are run when the system detects that someone on the system                       console has pressed the CTRL-ALT-DEL key combination.  Typically one                       wants to run 'reboot' at this point to cause the system to reboot.                        Finally the 'shutdown' action specifies the actions to taken when                       init is told to reboot.  Unmounting filesystems and disabling swap                       is a very good here

                Run repeatedly actions:

                        'respawn' actions are run after the 'once' actions.  When a process                        started with a 'respawn' action exits, init automatically restarts                        it.  Unlike sysvinit, BusyBox init does not stop processes from                        respawning out of control.  The 'askfirst' actions acts just like                        respawn, except that before running the specified process it                        displays the line "Please press Enter to activate this console."                        and then waits for the user to press enter before starting the                        specified process.

                Unrecognized actions (like initdefault) will cause init to emit an                error message, and then go along with its business.  All actions are                run in the reverse order from how they appear in /etc/inittab.

        <process>:

                Specifies the process to be executed and it's command line.

Example /etc/inittab file:

        # This is run first except when booting in single-user mode.        #        ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS

        # /bin/sh invocations on selected ttys        #        # Start an "askfirst" shell on the console (whatever that may be)        ::askfirst:-/bin/sh        # Start an "askfirst" shell on /dev/tty2-4        tty2::askfirst:-/bin/sh        tty3::askfirst:-/bin/sh        tty4::askfirst:-/bin/sh

        # /sbin/getty invocations for selected ttys        #        tty4::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty5        tty5::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty6

        # Example of how to put a getty on a serial line (for a terminal)        #        #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS0 9600 vt100        #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS1 9600 vt100        #        # Example how to put a getty on a modem line.        #::respawn:/sbin/getty 57600 ttyS2

        # Stuff to do before rebooting        ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot        ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r        ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a

-------------------------------

insmod
insmod [OPTION]... MODULE [symbol=value]...

Loads the specified kernel modules into the kernel.

Options:

        -f      Force module to load into the wrong kernel version.        -k      Make module autoclean-able.        -v      verbose output        -L      Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module        -x      do not export externs

-------------------------------

kill
kill [-signal] process-id [process-id ...]

Send a signal (default is SIGTERM) to the specified process(es).

Options:

        -l      List all signal names and numbers.

Example:

        $ ps | grep apache        252 root     root     S [apache]        263 www-data www-data S [apache]        264 www-data www-data S [apache]        265 www-data www-data S [apache]        266 www-data www-data S [apache]        267 www-data www-data S [apache]        $ kill 252

-------------------------------

killall
killall [-signal] process-name [process-name ...]

Send a signal (default is SIGTERM) to the specified process(es).

Options:

        -l      List all signal names and numbers.

Example:

        $ killall apache

-------------------------------

klogd
klogd -n

Kernel logger.Options:

        -n      Run as a foreground process.

-------------------------------

length
length STRING

Prints out the length of the specified STRING.

Example:

        $ length Hello        5

-------------------------------

ln
ln [OPTION] TARGET... LINK_NAME|DIRECTORY

Create a link named LINK_NAME or DIRECTORY to the specified TARGET

You may use '--' to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.

Options:

        -s      make symbolic links instead of hard links        -f      remove existing destination files        -n      no dereference symlinks - treat like normal file

Example:

        $ ln -s BusyBox /tmp/ls        $ ls -l /tmp/ls        lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root            7 Apr 12 18:39 ls -> BusyBox*

-------------------------------

loadacm
loadacm < mapfile

Loads an acm from standard input.

Example:

        $ loadacm < /etc/i18n/acmname

-------------------------------

loadfont
loadfont < font

Loads a console font from standard input.

Example:

        $ loadfont < /etc/i18n/fontname

-------------------------------

loadkmap
loadkmap < keymap

Loads a binary keyboard translation table from standard input.

Example:

        $ loadkmap < /etc/i18n/lang-keymap

-------------------------------

logger
logger [OPTION]... [MESSAGE]

Write MESSAGE to the system log. If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin.

Options:

        -s      Log to stderr as well as the system log.        -t      Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name).        -p      Enter the message with the specified priority.                This may be numerical or a ``facility.level'' pair.

Example:

        $ logger "hello"

-------------------------------

logname
logname       

Print the name of the current user.

Example:

        $ logname        root

-------------------------------

logread
logread

Shows the messages from syslogd (using circular buffer).

-------------------------------

ls
ls [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhk] [filenames...]

List directory contents

Options:

        -1      list files in a single column        -A      do not list implied . and ..        -a      do not hide entries starting with .        -C      list entries by columns        -c      with -l: show ctime        -d      list directory entries instead of contents        -e      list both full date and full time        -F      append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries        -i      list the i-node for each file        -l      use a long listing format        -n      list numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names        -p      append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries        -L      list entries pointed to by symbolic links        -R      list subdirectories recursively        -r      sort the listing in reverse order        -S      sort the listing by file size        -s      list the size of each file, in blocks        -T NUM  assume Tabstop every NUM columns        -t      with -l: show modification time        -u      with -l: show access time        -v      sort the listing by version        -w NUM  assume the terminal is NUM columns wide        -x      list entries by lines instead of by columns        -X      sort the listing by extension        -h      print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )        -k      print sizes in kilobytes(default)

-------------------------------

lsmod
lsmod         

List the currently loaded kernel modules.

-------------------------------

makedevs
makedevs NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR FIRST LAST [s]

Creates a range of block or character special files

TYPEs include:

        b:      Make a block (buffered) device.        c or u: Make a character (un-buffered) device.        p:      Make a named pipe. MAJOR and MINOR are ignored for named pipes.

FIRST specifies the number appended to NAME to create the first device.LAST specifies the number of the last item that should be created.If 's' is the last argument, the base device is created as well.

For example:

        makedevs /dev/ttyS c 4 66 2 63   ->  ttyS2-ttyS63        makedevs /dev/hda b 3 0 0 8 s    ->  hda,hda1-hda8

Example:

        $ makedevs /dev/ttyS c 4 66 2 63        [creates ttyS2-ttyS63]        $ makedevs /dev/hda b 3 0 0 8 s        [creates hda,hda1-hda8]

-------------------------------

md5sum
md5sum [OPTION] [FILE]...or: md5sum [OPTION] -c [FILE]

Print or check MD5 checksums.

Options:With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

        -b      read files in binary mode        -c      check MD5 sums against given list        -t      read files in text mode (default)        -g      read a string

The following two options are useful only when verifying checksums:

        -s      don't output anything, status code shows success        -w      warn about improperly formated MD5 checksum lines

Example:

        $ md5sum < busybox        6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003        $ md5sum busybox        6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox        $ md5sum -c -        6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox        busybox: OK        ^D

-------------------------------

mkdir
mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY...

Create the DIRECTORY(ies) if they do not already exist

Options:

        -m      set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx - umask        -p      no error if existing, make parent directories as needed

Example:

        $ mkdir /tmp/foo        $ mkdir /tmp/foo        /tmp/foo: File exists        $ mkdir /tmp/foo/bar/baz        /tmp/foo/bar/baz: No such file or directory        $ mkdir -p /tmp/foo/bar/baz

-------------------------------

mkfifo
mkfifo [OPTIONS] name

Creates a named pipe (identical to 'mknod name p')

Options:

        -m      create the pipe using the specified mode (default a=rw)

-------------------------------

mkfs_minix
mkfs_minix [-c | -l filename] [-nXX] [-iXX] /dev/name [blocks]

Make a MINIX filesystem.

Options:

        -c              Check the device for bad blocks        -n [14|30]      Specify the maximum length of filenames        -i INODES       Specify the number of inodes for the filesystem        -l FILENAME     Read the bad blocks list from FILENAME        -v              Make a Minix version 2 filesystem

-------------------------------

mknod
mknod [OPTIONS] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR

Create a special file (block, character, or pipe).

Options:

        -m      create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw)

TYPEs include:

        b:      Make a block (buffered) device.        c or u: Make a character (un-buffered) device.        p:      Make a named pipe. MAJOR and MINOR are ignored for named pipes.

Example:

        $ mknod /dev/fd0 b 2 0         $ mknod -m 644 /tmp/pipe p

-------------------------------

mkswap
mkswap [-c] [-v0|-v1] device [block-count]

Prepare a disk partition to be used as a swap partition.

Options:

        -c              Check for read-ability.        -v0             Make version 0 swap [max 128 Megs].        -v1             Make version 1 swap [big!] (default for kernels >                        2.1.117).        block-count     Number of block to use (default is entire partition).

-------------------------------

mktemp
mktemp [-q] TEMPLATE

Creates a temporary file with its name based on TEMPLATE.TEMPLATE is any name with six `Xs' (i.e., /tmp/temp.XXXXXX).

Example:

        $ mktemp /tmp/temp.XXXXXX        /tmp/temp.mWiLjM        $ ls -la /tmp/temp.mWiLjM        -rw-------    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 25 17:10 /tmp/temp.mWiLjM

-------------------------------

more
more [FILE ...]

More is a filter for viewing FILE one screenful at a time.

Example:

        $ dmesg | more

-------------------------------

mount
mount [flags] DEVICE NODE [-o options,more-options]

Mount a filesystem

Flags:

        -a:             Mount all filesystems in fstab.        -f:             "Fake" Add entry to mount table but don't mount it.        -n:             Don't write a mount table entry.        -o option:      One of many filesystem options, listed below.        -r:             Mount the filesystem read-only.        -t fs-type:     Specify the filesystem type.        -w:             Mount for reading and writing (default).

Options for use with the "-o" flag:

        async/sync:     Writes are asynchronous / synchronous.        atime/noatime:  Enable / disable updates to inode access times.        dev/nodev:      Allow use of special device files / disallow them.        exec/noexec:    Allow use of executable files / disallow them.        loop:           Mounts a file via loop device.        suid/nosuid:    Allow set-user-id-root programs / disallow them.        remount:        Re-mount a mounted filesystem, changing its flags.        ro/rw:          Mount for read-only / read-write.        bind:           Use the linux 2.4.x "bind" feature.

There are EVEN MORE flags that are specific to each filesystem.You'll have to see the written documentation for those filesystems.

Example:

        $ mount        /dev/hda3 on / type minix (rw)        proc on /proc type proc (rw)        devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw)        $ mount /dev/fd0 /mnt -t msdos -o ro        $ mount /tmp/diskimage /opt -t ext2 -o loop

-------------------------------

mt
mt [-f device] opcode value

Control magnetic tape drive operation

Available Opcodes:

bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erasefsf fsfm fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2ras3 reset retension rew rewoffline seek setblk setdensitysetpart tell unload unlock weof wset

-------------------------------

mv
mv SOURCE DESTor: mv SOURCE... DIRECTORY

Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

Example:

        $ mv /tmp/foo /bin/bar

-------------------------------

nc
nc [IP] [port]

Netcat opens a pipe to IP:port

Example:

        $ nc foobar.somedomain.com 25        220 foobar ESMTP Exim 3.12 #1 Sat, 15 Apr 2000 00:03:02 -0600        help        214-Commands supported:        214-    HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA AUTH        214     NOOP QUIT RSET HELP        quit        221 foobar closing connection

-------------------------------

nslookup
nslookup [HOST] [SERVER]

Queries the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOSToptionally using a specified DNS server

Example:

        $ nslookup localhost        Server:     default        Address:    default

        Name:       debian        Address:    127.0.0.1

-------------------------------

ping
ping [OPTION]... host

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts.

Options:

        -c COUNT        Send only COUNT pings.        -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56).        -q              Quiet mode, only displays output at start                        and when finished.

Example:

        $ ping localhost        PING slag (127.0.0.1): 56 data bytes        64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=20.1 ms

        --- debian ping statistics ---        1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss        round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms

-------------------------------

pivot_root
pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD

Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOTthe new root file system.

-------------------------------

poweroff
poweroff      

Halt the system and request that the kernel shut off the power.

-------------------------------

printf
printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT...]

Formats and prints ARGUMENT(s) according to FORMAT,Where FORMAT controls the output exactly as in C printf.

Example:

        $ printf "Val=%d\n" 5        Val=5

-------------------------------

ps
ps    

Report process status

This version of ps accepts no options.

Example:

        $ ps          PID  Uid      Gid State Command            1 root     root     S init            2 root     root     S [kflushd]            3 root     root     S [kupdate]            4 root     root     S [kpiod]            5 root     root     S [kswapd]          742 andersen andersen S [bash]          743 andersen andersen S -bash          745 root     root     S [getty]         2990 andersen andersen R ps

-------------------------------

pwd
pwd   

Print the full filename of the current working directory.

Example:

        $ pwd        /root

-------------------------------

rdate
rdate [OPTION] HOST

Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST.

Options:

        -s      Set the system date and time (default).        -p      Print the date and time.

-------------------------------

readlink
readlink      

Read a symbolic link.

-------------------------------

reboot
reboot        

Reboot the system.

-------------------------------

renice
renice priority pid [pid ...]

Changes priority of running processes. Allowed priorities rangefrom 20 (the process runs only when nothing else is running) to 0(default priority) to -20 (almost nothing else ever gets to run).

-------------------------------

reset
reset         

Resets the screen.

-------------------------------

rm
rm [OPTION]... FILE...

Remove (unlink) the FILE(s). You may use '--' toindicate that all following arguments are non-options.

Options:

        -i              always prompt before removing each destination  -f              remove existing destinations, never prompt        -r or -R        remove the contents of directories recursively

Example:

        $ rm -rf /tmp/foo

-------------------------------

rmdir
rmdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...

Remove the DIRECTORY(ies), if they are empty.

Example:

        # rmdir /tmp/foo

-------------------------------

rmmod
rmmod [OPTION]... [MODULE]...

Unloads the specified kernel modules from the kernel.

Options:

        -a      Try to remove all unused kernel modules.

Example:

        $ rmmod tulip

-------------------------------

route
route [{add|del|flush}]

Edit the kernel's routing tables

-------------------------------

rpm2cpio
rpm2cpio package.rpm

Outputs a cpio archive of the rpm file.

-------------------------------

rpmunpack
rpmunpack < package.rpm | gunzip | cpio -idmuv

Extracts an rpm archive.

-------------------------------

sed
sed [-nef] pattern [files...]

Options:

        -n              suppress automatic printing of pattern space        -e script       add the script to the commands to be executed        -f scriptfile   add the contents of script-file to the commands to be executed

If no -e or -f is given, the first non-option argument is taken as thesed script to interpret. All remaining arguments are names of inputfiles; if no input files are specified, then the standard input is read.

Example:

        $ echo "foo" | sed -e 's/f[a-zA-Z]o/bar/g'        bar

-------------------------------

setkeycodes
setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE ...

Set entries into the kernel's scancode-to-keycode map,allowing unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes.

SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal),and KEYCODE is given in decimal

Example:

        $ setkeycodes e030 127

-------------------------------

sh
sh [FILE]...or: sh -c command [args]...

lash: The BusyBox LAme SHell (command interpreter)

This command does not yet have proper documentation.

Use lash just as you would use any other shell. It properly handles pipes,redirects, job control, can be used as the shell for scripts, and has asufficient set of builtins to do what is needed. It does not (yet) supportBourne Shell syntax. If you need things like ``if-then-else'', ``while'', and suchuse ash or bash. If you just need a very simple and extremely small shell,this will do the job.

-------------------------------

sleep
sleep N

Pause for N seconds.

Example:

        $ sleep 2        [2 second delay results]

-------------------------------

sort
sort [-nru] [FILE]...

Sorts lines of text in the specified files

Options:

        -u      suppress duplicate lines        -r      sort in reverse order        -n      sort numerics

Example:

        $ echo -e "e\nf\nb\nd\nc\na" | sort        a        b        c        d        e        f

-------------------------------

stty
stty [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...

Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline,and deviations from stty sane.

Options:

        -F DEVICE       open device instead of stdin        -a              print all current settings in human-readable form        -g              print in stty-readable form        [SETTING]       see manpage

-------------------------------

swapoff
swapoff [OPTION] [DEVICE]

Stop swapping virtual memory pages on DEVICE.

Options:

        -a      Stop swapping on all swap devices

-------------------------------

swapon
swapon [OPTION] [DEVICE]

Start swapping virtual memory pages on DEVICE.

Options:

        -a      Start swapping on all swap devices

-------------------------------

sync
sync  

Write all buffered filesystem blocks to disk.

-------------------------------

syslogd
syslogd [OPTION]...

Linux system and kernel logging utility.Note that this version of syslogd ignores /etc/syslog.conf.

Options:

        -m NUM          Interval between MARK lines (default=20min, 0=off)        -n              Run as a foreground process        -O FILE         Use an alternate log file (default=/var/log/messages)        -R HOST[:PORT]  Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP)        -L              Log locally and via network logging (default is network only)

Example:

        $ syslogd -R masterlog:514        $ syslogd -R 192.168.1.1:601

-------------------------------

tail
tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving thefile name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Options:

        -c N[kbm]       output the last N bytes        -n N[kbm]       print last N lines instead of last 10        -f              output data as the file grows        -q              never output headers giving file names        -s SEC          wait SEC seconds between reads with -f        -v              always output headers giving file names

If the first character of N (bytes or lines) is a '+', output begins with the Nth item from the start of each file, otherwise, print the last N itemsin the file. N bytes may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (1024^2).

Example:

        $ tail -n 1 /etc/resolv.conf        nameserver 10.0.0.1

-------------------------------

tar
tar -[cxtvO] [--exclude FILE] [-X FILE][-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE(s)] ...

Create, extract, or list files from a tar file.

Options:

        c               create        x