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MAN page from OpenSuSE shadow-4.6-lp151.2.3.2.x86_64.rpm

NEWUSERS

Section: System Management Commands (8)
Updated: 04/29/2018
Index 

NAME

newusers - update and create new users in batch 

SYNOPSIS

newusers [options] [file]
 

DESCRIPTION

Thenewuserscommand reads afile(or the standard input by default) and uses this information to update a set of existing users or to create new users. Each line is in the same format as the standard password file (seepasswd(5)) with the exceptions explained below:

pw_name:pw_passwd:pw_uid:pw_gid:pw_gecos:pw_dir:pw_shell

pw_name

This is the name of the user.

It can be the name of a new user or the name of an existing user (or a user created before bynewusers). In case of an existing user, the user's information will be changed, otherwise a new user will be created.

pw_passwd

This field will be encrypted and used as the new value of the encrypted password.

pw_uid

This field is used to define the UID of the user.

If the field is empty, a new (unused) UID will be defined automatically bynewusers.

If this field contains a number, this number will be used as the UID.

If this field contains the name of an existing user (or the name of a user created before bynewusers), the UID of the specified user will be used.

If the UID of an existing user is changed, the files ownership of the user's file should be fixed manually.

pw_gid

This field is used to define the primary group ID for the user.

If this field contains the name of an existing group (or a group created before bynewusers), the GID of this group will be used as the primary group ID for the user.

If this field is a number, this number will be used as the primary group ID of the user. If no groups exist with this GID, a new group will be created with this GID, and the name of the user.

If this field is empty, a new group will be created with the name of the user and a GID will be automatically defined bynewusersto be used as the primary group ID for the user and as the GID for the new group.

If this field contains the name of a group which does not exist (and was not created before bynewusers), a new group will be created with the specified name and a GID will be automatically defined bynewusersto be used as the primary group ID for the user and GID for the new group.

pw_gecos

This field is copied in the GECOS field of the user.

pw_dir

This field is used to define the home directory of the user.

If this field does not specify an existing directory, the specified directory is created, with ownership set to the user being created or updated and its primary group.

If the home directory of an existing user is changed,newusersdoes not move or copy the content of the old directory to the new location. This should be done manually.

pw_shell

This field defines the shell of the user. No checks are performed on this field.

newusersfirst tries to create or change all the specified users, and then write these changes to the user or group databases. If an error occurs (except in the final writes to the databases), no changes are committed to the databases.

This command is intended to be used in a large system environment where many accounts are updated at a single time. 

OPTIONS

The options which apply to thenewuserscommand are:

-c, --crypt-method

Use the specified method to encrypt the passwords.

The available methods are DES, MD5, NONE, and SHA256 or SHA512 if your libc support these methods.

-h, --help

Display help message and exit.

-r, --system

Create a system account.

System users will be created with no aging information in/etc/shadow, and their numeric identifiers are chosen in theSYS_UID_MIN-SYS_UID_MAXrange, defined inlogin.defs, instead ofUID_MIN-UID_MAX(and theirGIDcounterparts for the creation of groups).

-R, --root CHROOT_DIR

Apply changes in theCHROOT_DIRdirectory and use the configuration files from theCHROOT_DIRdirectory.

-s, --sha-rounds

Use the specified number of rounds to encrypt the passwords.

The value 0 means that the system will choose the default number of rounds for the crypt method (5000).

A minimal value of 1000 and a maximal value of 999,999,999 will be enforced.

You can only use this option with the SHA256 or SHA512 crypt method.

By default, the number of rounds is defined by the SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS and SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS variables in/etc/login.defs.

 

CAVEATS

The input file must be protected since it contains unencrypted passwords.

You should make sure the passwords and the encryption method respect the system's password policy. 

CONFIGURATION

The following configuration variables in/etc/login.defschange the behavior of this tool:

ENCRYPT_METHOD (string)

This defines the system default encryption algorithm for encrypting passwords (if no algorithm are specified on the command line).

It can take one of these values:DES(default),MD5, SHA256, SHA512.

Note: this parameter overrides theMD5_CRYPT_ENABvariable.

GID_MAX (number), GID_MIN (number)

Range of group IDs used for the creation of regular groups byuseradd,groupadd, ornewusers.

The default value forGID_MIN(resp.GID_MAX) is 1000 (resp. 60000).

MAX_MEMBERS_PER_GROUP (number)

Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is reached, a new group entry (line) is started in/etc/group(with the same name, same password, and same GID).

The default value is 0, meaning that there are no limits in the number of members in a group.

This feature (split group) permits to limit the length of lines in the group file. This is useful to make sure that lines for NIS groups are not larger than 1024 characters.

If you need to enforce such limit, you can use 25.

Note: split groups may not be supported by all tools (even in the Shadow toolsuite). You should not use this variable unless you really need it.

MD5_CRYPT_ENAB (boolean)

Indicate if passwords must be encrypted using the MD5-based algorithm. If set toyes, new passwords will be encrypted using the MD5-based algorithm compatible with the one used by recent releases of FreeBSD. It supports passwords of unlimited length and longer salt strings. Set tonoif you need to copy encrypted passwords to other systems which don't understand the new algorithm. Default isno.

This variable is superseded by theENCRYPT_METHODvariable or by any command line option used to configure the encryption algorithm.

This variable is deprecated. You should useENCRYPT_METHOD.

PASS_MAX_DAYS (number)

The maximum number of days a password may be used. If the password is older than this, a password change will be forced. If not specified, -1 will be assumed (which disables the restriction).

PASS_MIN_DAYS (number)

The minimum number of days allowed between password changes. Any password changes attempted sooner than this will be rejected. If not specified, -1 will be assumed (which disables the restriction).

PASS_WARN_AGE (number)

The number of days warning given before a password expires. A zero means warning is given only upon the day of expiration, a negative value means no warning is given. If not specified, no warning will be provided.

SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS (number), SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS (number)

WhenENCRYPT_METHODis set toSHA256orSHA512, this defines the number of SHA rounds used by the encryption algorithm by default (when the number of rounds is not specified on the command line).

With a lot of rounds, it is more difficult to brute forcing the password. But note also that more CPU resources will be needed to authenticate users.

If not specified, the libc will choose the default number of rounds (5000).

The values must be inside the 1000-999,999,999 range.

If only one of theSHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDSorSHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDSvalues is set, then this value will be used.

IfSHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS>SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS, the highest value will be used.

SUB_GID_MIN (number), SUB_GID_MAX (number), SUB_GID_COUNT (number)

If/etc/subuidexists, the commandsuseraddandnewusers(unless the user already have subordinate group IDs) allocateSUB_GID_COUNTunused group IDs from the rangeSUB_GID_MINtoSUB_GID_MAXfor each new user.

The default values forSUB_GID_MIN,SUB_GID_MAX,SUB_GID_COUNTare respectively 100000, 600100000 and 10000.

SUB_UID_MIN (number), SUB_UID_MAX (number), SUB_UID_COUNT (number)

If/etc/subuidexists, the commandsuseraddandnewusers(unless the user already have subordinate user IDs) allocateSUB_UID_COUNTunused user IDs from the rangeSUB_UID_MINtoSUB_UID_MAXfor each new user.

The default values forSUB_UID_MIN,SUB_UID_MAX,SUB_UID_COUNTare respectively 100000, 600100000 and 10000.

SYS_GID_MAX (number), SYS_GID_MIN (number)

Range of group IDs used for the creation of system groups byuseradd,groupadd, ornewusers.

The default value forSYS_GID_MIN(resp.SYS_GID_MAX) is 101 (resp.GID_MIN-1).

SYS_UID_MAX (number), SYS_UID_MIN (number)

Range of user IDs used for the creation of system users byuseraddornewusers.

The default value forSYS_UID_MIN(resp.SYS_UID_MAX) is 101 (resp.UID_MIN-1).

UID_MAX (number), UID_MIN (number)

Range of user IDs used for the creation of regular users byuseraddornewusers.

The default value forUID_MIN(resp.UID_MAX) is 1000 (resp. 60000).

UMASK (number)

The file mode creation mask is initialized to this value. If not specified, the mask will be initialized to 022.

useraddandnewusersuse this mask to set the mode of the home directory they create

It is also used byloginto define users' initial umask. Note that this mask can be overridden by the user's GECOS line (ifQUOTAS_ENABis set) or by the specification of a limit with theKidentifier inlimits(5).

 

FILES

/etc/passwd

User account information.

/etc/shadow

Secure user account information.

/etc/group

Group account information.

/etc/gshadow

Secure group account information.

/etc/login.defs

Shadow password suite configuration.

/etc/subgid

Per user subordinate group IDs.

/etc/subuid

Per user subordinate user IDs.
 

SEE ALSO

login.defs(5),passwd(1),subgid(5), subuid(5),useradd(8).


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
CAVEATS
CONFIGURATION
FILES
SEE ALSO

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