MAN page from Mandrake 9.X bind-utils-9.2.3-0.rc2.1mdk.i586.rpm
Section: Maintenance Commands (8)Index
- query Internet name servers interactively
][host-to-find | -
is a program to query Internet domain name servers. Nslookup
has two modes: interactive and non-interactive.Interactive mode allows the user to query name servers forinformation about various hosts and domains or to print a list of hosts in a domain. Non-interactive mode is used to print just the name and requested informationfor a host or domain.
Interactive mode is entered in the following cases:
- when no arguments are given (the default name server will be used),
- when the first argument is a hyphen (-) and the second argumentis the host name or Internet address of a name server.
Non-interactive mode is used when the name or Internet address of the host to be looked upis given as the first argument. The optional second argument specifiesthe host name or address of a name server.
The options listed under the ``set ''command below can be specified inthe .nslookuprc file in the user's home directory if they are listed one per line. Options can also be specifiedon the command line if they precede the arguments and are prefixed witha hyphen. For example, to change the default query type to host information,and the initial timeout to 10 seconds, type:
nslookup -query=hinfo -timeout=10
Commands may be interrupted at any time by typing a control-C.To exit, type a control-D (EOF
)or type exit
The command line length must be less than 256 characters.To treat a built-in command as a host name, precede it with an escape character (.&\ . )N.B.: An
unrecognized command will be interpreted as a host name.
- host [server]
- Look up information for host using the current default server or using server , if specified.If host is an Internet address and the query type is A or PTR , the name of the host is returned.If host is a name and does not have a trailing period, the default domain name is appended to the name. (This behavior depends on the state of thesetoptions domain , srchlist , defname , and search .
To look up a host not in the current domain, append a period to the name.
- server domain
- lserver domain
- Change the default server to domain ; lserver uses the initial server to look up information about domain while serveruses the current default server. If an authoritative answer can't be found, the names of serversthat might have the answer are returned.
- Changes the default server to the server for the root of the domain name space.Currently, the host ns.internic.net is used.(This command is a synonym for ``lserver ns.internic.net '' The name of the root server can be changed with the ``set root ''command.
- finger [name ][> filename]
- finger [name ][>> filename]
- Connects with the finger server on the current host. The current host is defined when a previous lookup for a hostwas successful and returned address information (see the ``set querytype=A ''command).The name is optional. > and >> can be used to redirect output in the usual manner.
- ls [option ]domain [> filename]
- ls [option ]domain [>> filename]
- List the information available for domain , optionally creating or appending to filename The default output contains host names and their Internet addresses. Option can be one of the following:
- -t querytype
- lists all records of the specified type (see querytype below).
- lists aliases of hosts in the domain;synonym for ``-t CNAME''
- lists all records for the domain;synonym for ``-t ANY''
- lists CPU and operating system information for the domain;synonym for ``-t HINFO''
- lists well-known services of hosts in the domain;synonym for ``-t WKS''
When output is directed to a file, hash marks are printed for every50 records received from the server.
- view filename
- Sorts and lists the output of previous ls command(s) with more(1).
- Prints a brief summary of commands.
- Exits the program.
- set keyword [= value]
- This command is used to change state information that affects the lookups.Valid keywords are:
- Prints the current values of the frequently-used options to set Information about the current default server and host is also printed.
- class= value
- Change the query class to one of:
- the Internet class
- the Chaos class
- the MIT Athena Hesiod class
- wildcard (any of the above)
The class specifies the protocol group of the information.
(Default = IN ; abbreviation = cl
- [no ]debug
- Turn debugging mode on. A lot more information is printed about thepacket sent to the server and the resulting answer.
(Default = nodebug ; abbreviation = Op Ic nodeb
- [no ]d2
- Turn exhaustive debugging mode on.Essentially all fields of every packet are printed.
(Default = nod2
- domain= name
- Change the default domain name to name . The default domain name is appended to a lookup request depending on thestate of the defname and search options.The domain search list contains the parents of the default domain if it has at least two components in its name. For example, if the default domainis CC.Berkeley.EDU, the search list is CC.Berkeley.EDU and Berkeley.EDU.Use the ``set srchlist ''command to specify a different list.Use the ``set all ''command to display the list.
(Default = value from hostname(1),/etc/resolv.conf or LOCALDOMAIN;abbreviation = do
- srchlist= name1/name2/...
- Change the default domain name to name1 and the domain search listto name1 , name2 , etc. A maximum of 6 names separated by slashes (/)can be specified.For example,
sets the domain to lcs.MIT.EDU and the search list to the three names.This command overrides thedefault domain name and search list of the ``set domain ''command.Use the ``set all ''command to display the list.
(Default = value based on hostname(1),/etc/resolv.conf or LOCALDOMAIN;abbreviation = srchl
- If set, append the default domain name to a single-component lookup request (i.e., one that does not contain a period).
(Default = defname ; abbreviation = Op Ic nodefname
- [no ]search
- If the lookup request contains at least one period but doesn't end with a trailing period, append the domain names in the domain search listto the request until an answer is received.
(Default = search ; abbreviation = Op Ic no sea
- port= value
- Change the default TCP/UDP name server port to value
(Default = 53; abbreviation = po
- querytype= value
- type= value
- Change the type of information query to one of:
- the host's Internet address.
- the canonical name for an alias.
- the host CPU and operating system type.
- the mailbox or mail list information.
- the mail exchanger.
- the name server for the named zone.
- the host name if the query is an Internet address;otherwise, the pointer to other information.
- the domain's ``start-of-authority ''information.
- the text information.
- the user information.
- the supported well-known services.
Other types (ANY, AXFR, MB, MD, MF, NULL )are described in the RFC-1035 document.
(Default = A ; abbreviations = q , ty
- Tell the name server to query other servers if it does not have theinformation.
(Default = recurse ; abbreviation =Op Ic norec
- retry= number
- Set the number of retries to number When a reply to a request is not received within a certain amount of time (changed with ``set timeout ) , ''the timeout period is doubled and the request is resent. The retry value controls how many times a request is resent before giving up.
(Default = 4, abbreviation = ret
- root= host
- Change the name of the root server to host . This affects the ``root ''command.
(Default = ns.internic.net. abbreviation = ro
- timeout= number
- Change the initial timeout interval for waiting for a reply to number seconds. Each retry doubles the timeout period.
(Default = 5 seconds; abbreviation = ti
- Always use a virtual circuit when sending requests to the server.
(Default = novc ; abbreviation = Op Ic nov
- Ignore packet truncation errors.
(Default = noignoretc ; abbreviation = Op Ic noig
If the lookup request was not successful, an error message is printed.Possible errors are:
- Timed out
- The server did not respond to a request after a certain amount oftime (changed with ``set timeout= value ) ''and a certain number of retries (changed with ``set retry= value ''
- response from server
- No name server is running on the server machine.
- The server does not have resource records of the current query type for thehost, although the host name is valid.The query type is specified with the ``set querytype ''command.
- Non-existent domain
- The host or domain name does not exist.
- Connection refused
- Network is unreachable
- The connection to the name or finger server could not be made at the current time.This error commonly occurs with ls and finger requests.
- Server failure
- The name server found an internal inconsistency in its databaseand could not return a valid answer.
- The name server refused to service the request.
- Format error
- The name server found that the request packet was not in the proper format.It may indicate an error in nslookup
- initial domain name and name server addresses
- user's initial options
- summary of commands
- file containing host aliases
- overrides default domain
(5);RFC-1034,``Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities'' RFC-1035,``Domain Names - Implementation and Specification''
- INTERACTIVE COMMANDS
- SEE ALSO
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