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MAN page from Fedora 6 perl-ExtUtils-MakeMaker-6.46-1.fc6.rf.noarch.rpm

ExtUtils::MakeMaker

Section: User Contributed Perl Documentation (3)
Updated: 2008-09-27
Index 

NAME

ExtUtils::MakeMaker - Create a module Makefile 

SYNOPSIS

  use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;

  WriteMakefile( ATTRIBUTE => VALUE [, ...] );
 

DESCRIPTION

This utility is designed to write a Makefile for an extension modulefrom a Makefile.PL. It is based on the Makefile.SH model provided byAndy Dougherty and the perl5-porters.

It splits the task of generating the Makefile into several subroutinesthat can be individually overridden. Each subroutine returns the textit wishes to have written to the Makefile.

MakeMaker is object oriented. Each directory below the currentdirectory that contains a Makefile.PL is treated as a separateobject. This makes it possible to write an unlimited number ofMakefiles with a single invocation of WriteMakefile(). 

How To Write A Makefile.PL

See ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial.

The long answer is the rest of the manpage :-) 

Default Makefile Behaviour

The generated Makefile enables the user of the extension to invoke

  perl Makefile.PL # optionally "perl Makefile.PL verbose"  make  make test        # optionally set TEST_VERBOSE=1  make install     # See below

The Makefile to be produced may be altered by adding arguments of theform "KEY=VALUE". E.g.

  perl Makefile.PL INSTALL_BASE=~

Other interesting targets in the generated Makefile are

  make config     # to check if the Makefile is up-to-date  make clean      # delete local temp files (Makefile gets renamed)  make realclean  # delete derived files (including ./blib)  make ci         # check in all the files in the MANIFEST file  make dist       # see below the Distribution Support section
 

make test

MakeMaker checks for the existence of a file named test.pl in thecurrent directory and if it exists it execute the script with theproper set of perl "-I" options.

MakeMaker also checks for any files matching glob(``t/*.t''). It willexecute all matching files in alphabetical order via theTest::Harness module with the "-I" switches set correctly.

If you'd like to see the raw output of your tests, set the"TEST_VERBOSE" variable to true.

  make test TEST_VERBOSE=1
 

make testdb

A useful variation of the above is the target "testdb". It runs thetest under the Perl debugger (see perldebug). If the filetest.pl exists in the current directory, it is used for the test.

If you want to debug some other testfile, set the "TEST_FILE" variablethusly:

  make testdb TEST_FILE=t/mytest.t

By default the debugger is called using "-d" option to perl. If youwant to specify some other option, set the "TESTDB_SW" variable:

  make testdb TESTDB_SW=-Dx
 

make install

make alone puts all relevant files into directories that are named bythe macros INST_LIB, INST_ARCHLIB, INST_SCRIPT, INST_MAN1DIR andINST_MAN3DIR. All these default to something below ./blib if you arenot building below the perl source directory. If you arebuilding below the perl source, INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB default to../../lib, and INST_SCRIPT is not defined.

The install target of the generated Makefile copies the files foundbelow each of the INST_* directories to their INSTALL*counterparts. Which counterparts are chosen depends on the setting ofINSTALLDIRS according to the following table:

                                 INSTALLDIRS set to                           perl        site          vendor

                 PERLPREFIX      SITEPREFIX          VENDORPREFIX  INST_ARCHLIB   INSTALLARCHLIB  INSTALLSITEARCH     INSTALLVENDORARCH  INST_LIB       INSTALLPRIVLIB  INSTALLSITELIB      INSTALLVENDORLIB  INST_BIN       INSTALLBIN      INSTALLSITEBIN      INSTALLVENDORBIN  INST_SCRIPT    INSTALLSCRIPT   INSTALLSITESCRIPT   INSTALLVENDORSCRIPT  INST_MAN1DIR   INSTALLMAN1DIR  INSTALLSITEMAN1DIR  INSTALLVENDORMAN1DIR  INST_MAN3DIR   INSTALLMAN3DIR  INSTALLSITEMAN3DIR  INSTALLVENDORMAN3DIR

The INSTALL... macros in turn default to their %Config($Config{installprivlib}, $Config{installarchlib}, etc.) counterparts.

You can check the values of these variables on your system with

    perl '-V:install.*'

And to check the sequence in which the library directories aresearched by perl, run

    perl -le 'print join $/, @INC'

Sometimes older versions of the module you're installing live in otherdirectories in @INC. Because Perl loads the first version of a module it finds, not the newest, you might accidentally get one of these olderversions even after installing a brand new version. To delete all otherversions of the module you're installing (not simply older ones) set the"UNINST" variable.

    make install UNINST=1
 

INSTALL_BASE

INSTALL_BASE can be passed into Makefile.PL to change where yourmodule will be installed. INSTALL_BASE is more like what everyoneelse calls ``prefix'' than PREFIX is.

To have everything installed in your home directory, do the following.

    # Unix users, INSTALL_BASE=~ works fine    perl Makefile.PL INSTALL_BASE=/path/to/your/home/dir

Like PREFIX, it sets several INSTALL* attributes at once. UnlikePREFIX it is easy to predict where the module will end up. Theinstallation pattern looks like this:

    INSTALLARCHLIB     INSTALL_BASE/lib/perl5/$Config{archname}    INSTALLPRIVLIB     INSTALL_BASE/lib/perl5    INSTALLBIN         INSTALL_BASE/bin    INSTALLSCRIPT      INSTALL_BASE/bin    INSTALLMAN1DIR     INSTALL_BASE/man/man1    INSTALLMAN3DIR     INSTALL_BASE/man/man3

INSTALL_BASE in MakeMaker and "--install_base" in Module::Build (asof 0.28) install to the same location. If you want MakeMaker andModule::Build to install to the same location simply set INSTALL_BASEand "--install_base" to the same location.

INSTALL_BASE was added in 6.31. 

PREFIX and LIB attribute

PREFIX and LIB can be used to set several INSTALL* attributes in onego. Here's an example for installing into your home directory.

    # Unix users, PREFIX=~ works fine    perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/path/to/your/home/dir

This will install all files in the module under your home directory,with man pages and libraries going into an appropriate place (usually~/man and ~/lib). How the exact location is determined is complicatedand depends on how your Perl was configured. INSTALL_BASE works morelike what other build systems call ``prefix'' than PREFIX and werecommend you use that instead.

Another way to specify many INSTALL directories with a singleparameter is LIB.

    perl Makefile.PL LIB=~/lib

This will install the module's architecture-independent files into~/lib, the architecture-dependent files into ~/lib/$archname.

Note, that in both cases the tilde expansion is done by MakeMaker, notby perl by default, nor by make.

Conflicts between parameters LIB, PREFIX and the various INSTALL*arguments are resolved so that:

*
setting LIB overrides any setting of INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLARCHLIB,INSTALLSITELIB, INSTALLSITEARCH (and they are not affected by PREFIX);
*
without LIB, setting PREFIX replaces the initial $Config{prefix}part of those INSTALL* arguments, even if the latter are explicitlyset (but are set to still start with $Config{prefix}).

If the user has superuser privileges, and is not working on AFS orrelatives, then the defaults for INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLARCHLIB,INSTALLSCRIPT, etc. will be appropriate, and this incantation will bethe best:

    perl Makefile.PL;     make;     make test    make install

make install per default writes some documentation of what has beendone into the file "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod". This featurecan be bypassed by calling make pure_install. 

AFS users

will have to specify the installation directories as these mostprobably have changed since perl itself has been installed. They willhave to do this by calling

    perl Makefile.PL INSTALLSITELIB=/afs/here/today \        INSTALLSCRIPT=/afs/there/now INSTALLMAN3DIR=/afs/for/manpages    make

Be careful to repeat this procedure every time you recompile anextension, unless you are sure the AFS installation directories arestill valid. 

Static Linking of a new Perl Binary

An extension that is built with the above steps is ready to use onsystems supporting dynamic loading. On systems that do not supportdynamic loading, any newly created extension has to be linked togetherwith the available resources. MakeMaker supports the linking processby creating appropriate targets in the Makefile whenever an extensionis built. You can invoke the corresponding section of the makefile with

    make perl

That produces a new perl binary in the current directory with allextensions linked in that can be found in INST_ARCHLIB, SITELIBEXP,and PERL_ARCHLIB. To do that, MakeMaker writes a new Makefile, onUNIX, this is called Makefile.aperl (may be system dependent). If youwant to force the creation of a new perl, it is recommended, that youdelete this Makefile.aperl, so the directories are searched-throughfor linkable libraries again.

The binary can be installed into the directory where perl normallyresides on your machine with

    make inst_perl

To produce a perl binary with a different name than "perl", either say

    perl Makefile.PL MAP_TARGET=myperl    make myperl    make inst_perl

or say

    perl Makefile.PL    make myperl MAP_TARGET=myperl    make inst_perl MAP_TARGET=myperl

In any case you will be prompted with the correct invocation of the"inst_perl" target that installs the new binary into INSTALLBIN.

make inst_perl per default writes some documentation of what has beendone into the file "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod". Thiscan be bypassed by calling make pure_inst_perl.

Warning: the inst_perl: target will most probably overwrite yourexisting perl binary. Use with care!

Sometimes you might want to build a statically linked perl althoughyour system supports dynamic loading. In this case you may explicitlyset the linktype with the invocation of the Makefile.PL or make:

    perl Makefile.PL LINKTYPE=static    # recommended

or

    make LINKTYPE=static                # works on most systems
 

Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations

MakeMaker needs to know, or to guess, where certain things arelocated. Especially INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB (where to put the filesduring the make(1) run), PERL_LIB and PERL_ARCHLIB (where to readexisting modules from), and PERL_INC (header files and "libperl*.*").

Extensions may be built either using the contents of the perl sourcedirectory tree or from the installed perl library. The recommended wayis to build extensions after you have run 'make install' on perlitself. You can do that in any directory on your hard disk that is notbelow the perl source tree. The support for extensions below the extdirectory of the perl distribution is only good for the standardextensions that come with perl.

If an extension is being built below the "ext/" directory of the perlsource then MakeMaker will set PERL_SRC automatically (e.g.,"../.."). If PERL_SRC is defined and the extension is recognized asa standard extension, then other variables default to the following:

  PERL_INC     = PERL_SRC  PERL_LIB     = PERL_SRC/lib  PERL_ARCHLIB = PERL_SRC/lib  INST_LIB     = PERL_LIB  INST_ARCHLIB = PERL_ARCHLIB

If an extension is being built away from the perl source then MakeMakerwill leave PERL_SRC undefined and default to using the installed copyof the perl library. The other variables default to the following:

  PERL_INC     = $archlibexp/CORE  PERL_LIB     = $privlibexp  PERL_ARCHLIB = $archlibexp  INST_LIB     = ./blib/lib  INST_ARCHLIB = ./blib/arch

If perl has not yet been installed then PERL_SRC can be defined on thecommand line as shown in the previous section. 

Which architecture dependent directory?

If you don't want to keep the defaults for the INSTALL* macros,MakeMaker helps you to minimize the typing needed: the usualrelationship between INSTALLPRIVLIB and INSTALLARCHLIB is determinedby Configure at perl compilation time. MakeMaker supports the user whosets INSTALLPRIVLIB. If INSTALLPRIVLIB is set, but INSTALLARCHLIB not,then MakeMaker defaults the latter to be the same subdirectory ofINSTALLPRIVLIB as Configure decided for the counterparts in %Config ,otherwise it defaults to INSTALLPRIVLIB. The same relationship holdsfor INSTALLSITELIB and INSTALLSITEARCH.

MakeMaker gives you much more freedom than needed to configureinternal variables and get different results. It is worth to mention,that make(1) also lets you configure most of the variables that areused in the Makefile. But in the majority of situations this will notbe necessary, and should only be done if the author of a packagerecommends it (or you know what you're doing). 

Using Attributes and Parameters

The following attributes may be specified as arguments to WriteMakefile()or as NAME=VALUE pairs on the command line.
ABSTRACT
One line description of the module. Will be included in PPD file.
ABSTRACT_FROM
Name of the file that contains the package description. MakeMaker looksfor a line in the POD matching /^($package\s-\s)(.*)/. This is typicallythe first line in the ``=head1 NAME'' section. $2 becomes the abstract.
AUTHOR
String containing name (and email address) of package author(s). Is usedin PPD (Perl Package Description) files for PPM (Perl Package Manager).
BINARY_LOCATION
Used when creating PPD files for binary packages. It can be set to afull or relative path or URL to the binary archive for a particulararchitecture. For example:

        perl Makefile.PL BINARY_LOCATION=x86/Agent.tar.gz

builds a PPD package that references a binary of the "Agent" package,located in the "x86" directory relative to the PPD itself.

C
Ref to array of *.c file names. Initialised from a directory scanand the values portion of the XS attribute hash. This is notcurrently used by MakeMaker but may be handy in Makefile.PLs.
CCFLAGS
String that will be included in the compiler call command line betweenthe arguments INC and OPTIMIZE.
CONFIG
Arrayref. E.g. [qw(archname manext)] defines ARCHNAME & MANEXT fromconfig.sh. MakeMaker will add to CONFIG the following values anyway:arcccccdlflagsccdlflagsdlextdlsrcldlddlflagsldflagslibclib_extobj_extranlibsitelibexpsitearchexpso
CONFIGURE
CODE reference. The subroutine should return a hash reference. Thehash may contain further attributes, e.g. {LIBS => ...}, that have tobe determined by some evaluation method.
DEFINE
Something like "-DHAVE_UNISTD_H"
DESTDIR
This is the root directory into which the code will be installed. Itprepends itself to the normal prefix. For example, if your codewould normally go into /usr/local/lib/perl you could set DESTDIR=~/tmp/and installation would go into ~/tmp/usr/local/lib/perl.

This is primarily of use for people who repackage Perl modules.

NOTE: Due to the nature of make, it is important that you put the trailingslash on your DESTDIR. ~/tmp/ not ~/tmp.

DIR
Ref to array of subdirectories containing Makefile.PLs e.g. [ 'sdbm'] in ext/SDBM_File
DISTNAME
A safe filename for the package.

Defaults to NAME above but with :: replaced with -.

For example, Foo::Bar becomes Foo-Bar.

DISTVNAME
Your name for distributing the package with the version numberincluded. This is used by 'make dist' to name the resulting archivefile.

Defaults to DISTNAME-VERSION.

For example, version 1.04 of Foo::Bar becomes Foo-Bar-1.04.

On some OS's where . has special meaning VERSION_SYM may be used inplace of VERSION.

DL_FUNCS
Hashref of symbol names for routines to be made available as universalsymbols. Each key/value pair consists of the package name and anarray of routine names in that package. Used only under AIX, OS/2,VMS and Win32 at present. The routine names supplied will be expandedin the same way as XSUB names are expanded by the XS() macro.Defaults to

  {"$(NAME)" => ["boot_$(NAME)" ] }

e.g.

  {"RPC" => [qw( boot_rpcb rpcb_gettime getnetconfigent )],   "NetconfigPtr" => [ 'DESTROY'] }

Please see the ExtUtils::Mksymlists documentation for more informationabout the DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS and FUNCLIST attributes.

DL_VARS
Array of symbol names for variables to be made available as universal symbols.Used only under AIX, OS/2, VMS and Win32 at present. Defaults to [].(e.g. [ qw(Foo_version Foo_numstreams Foo_tree ) ])
EXCLUDE_EXT
Array of extension names to exclude when doing a static build. Thisis ignored if INCLUDE_EXT is present. Consult INCLUDE_EXT for moredetails. (e.g. [ qw( Socket POSIX ) ] )

This attribute may be most useful when specified as a string on thecommand line: perl Makefile.PL EXCLUDE_EXT='Socket Safe'

EXE_FILES
Ref to array of executable files. The files will be copied to theINST_SCRIPT directory. Make realclean will delete them from thereagain.

If your executables start with something like #!perl or#!/usr/bin/perl MakeMaker will change this to the path of the perl'Makefile.PL' was invoked with so the programs will be sure to runproperly even if perl is not in /usr/bin/perl.

FIRST_MAKEFILE
The name of the Makefile to be produced. This is used for the secondMakefile that will be produced for the MAP_TARGET.

Defaults to 'Makefile' or 'Descrip.MMS' on VMS.

(Note: we couldn't use MAKEFILE because dmake uses this for somethingelse).

FULLPERL
Perl binary able to run this extension, load XS modules, etc...
FULLPERLRUN
Like PERLRUN, except it uses FULLPERL.
FULLPERLRUNINST
Like PERLRUNINST, except it uses FULLPERL.
FUNCLIST
This provides an alternate means to specify function names to beexported from the extension. Its value is a reference to anarray of function names to be exported by the extension. Thesenames are passed through unaltered to the linker options file.
H
Ref to array of *.h file names. Similar to C.
IMPORTS
This attribute is used to specify names to be imported into theextension. Takes a hash ref.

It is only used on OS/2 and Win32.

INC
Include file dirs eg: "-I/usr/5include -I/path/to/inc"
INCLUDE_EXT
Array of extension names to be included when doing a static build.MakeMaker will normally build with all of the installed extensions whendoing a static build, and that is usually the desired behavior. IfINCLUDE_EXT is present then MakeMaker will build only with those extensionswhich are explicitly mentioned. (e.g. [ qw( Socket POSIX ) ])

It is not necessary to mention DynaLoader or the current extension whenfilling in INCLUDE_EXT. If the INCLUDE_EXT is mentioned but is empty thenonly DynaLoader and the current extension will be included in the build.

This attribute may be most useful when specified as a string on thecommand line: perl Makefile.PL INCLUDE_EXT='POSIX Socket Devel::Peek'

INSTALLARCHLIB
Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS is set to perl.
INSTALLBIN
Directory to install binary files (e.g. tkperl) into ifINSTALLDIRS=perl.
INSTALLDIRS
Determines which of the sets of installation directories to choose:perl, site or vendor. Defaults to site.
INSTALLMAN1DIR
INSTALLMAN3DIR
These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time ifINSTALLDIRS=perl. Defaults to $Config{installman*dir}.

If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

INSTALLPRIVLIB
Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS is set to perl.

Defaults to $Config{installprivlib}.

INSTALLSCRIPT
Used by 'make install' which copies files from INST_SCRIPT to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS=perl.
INSTALLSITEARCH
Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).
INSTALLSITEBIN
Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).
INSTALLSITELIB
Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).
INSTALLSITEMAN1DIR
INSTALLSITEMAN3DIR
These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time ifINSTALLDIRS=site (default). Defaults to $(SITEPREFIX)/man/man$(MAN*EXT).

If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

INSTALLSITESCRIPT
Used by 'make install' which copies files from INST_SCRIPT to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).
INSTALLVENDORARCH
Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.
INSTALLVENDORBIN
Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.
INSTALLVENDORLIB
Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.
INSTALLVENDORMAN1DIR
INSTALLVENDORMAN3DIR
These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time ifINSTALLDIRS=vendor. Defaults to $(VENDORPREFIX)/man/man$(MAN*EXT).

If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

INSTALLVENDORSCRIPT
Used by 'make install' which copies files from INST_SCRIPT to thisdirectory if INSTALLDIRS is set to is set to vendor.
INST_ARCHLIB
Same as INST_LIB for architecture dependent files.
INST_BIN
Directory to put real binary files during 'make'. These will be copiedto INSTALLBIN during 'make install'
INST_LIB
Directory where we put library files of this extension while buildingit.
INST_MAN1DIR
Directory to hold the man pages at 'make' time
INST_MAN3DIR
Directory to hold the man pages at 'make' time
INST_SCRIPT
Directory, where executable files should be installed during'make'. Defaults to ``./blib/script'', just to have a dummy location duringtesting. make install will copy the files in INST_SCRIPT toINSTALLSCRIPT.
LD
Program to be used to link libraries for dynamic loading.

Defaults to $Config{ld}.

LDDLFLAGS
Any special flags that might need to be passed to ld to create ashared library suitable for dynamic loading. It is up to the makefileto use it. (See ``lddlflags'' in Config)

Defaults to $Config{lddlflags}.

LDFROM
Defaults to ``$(OBJECT)'' and is used in the ld command to specifywhat files to link/load from (also see dynamic_lib below for how tospecify ld flags)
LIB
LIB should only be set at "perl Makefile.PL" time but is allowed as aMakeMaker argument. It has the effect of setting both INSTALLPRIVLIBand INSTALLSITELIB to that value regardless any explicit setting ofthose arguments (or of PREFIX). INSTALLARCHLIB and INSTALLSITEARCHare set to the corresponding architecture subdirectory.
LIBPERL_A
The filename of the perllibrary that will be used together with thisextension. Defaults to libperl.a.
LIBS
An anonymous array of alternative libraryspecifications to be searched for (in order) untilat least one library is found. E.g.

  'LIBS' => ["-lgdbm", "-ldbm -lfoo", "-L/path -ldbm.nfs"]

Mind, that any element of the arraycontains a complete set of arguments for the ldcommand. So do not specify

  'LIBS' => ["-ltcl", "-ltk", "-lX11"]

See ODBM_File/Makefile.PL for an example, where an array is needed. Ifyou specify a scalar as in

  'LIBS' => "-ltcl -ltk -lX11"

MakeMaker will turn it into an array with one element.

LICENSE
The licensing terms of your distribution. Generally its ``perl'' for thesame license as Perl itself.

See Module::Build::API for the list of options.

Defaults to ``unknown''.

LINKTYPE
'static' or 'dynamic' (default unless usedl=undef inconfig.sh). Should only be used to force static linking (also seelinkext below).
MAKE
Variant of make you intend to run the generated Makefile with. Thisparameter lets Makefile.PL know what make quirks to account for whengenerating the Makefile.

MakeMaker also honors the MAKE environment variable. This parametertakes precedent.

Currently the only significant values are 'dmake' and 'nmake' for Windowsusers.

Defaults to $Config{make}.

MAKEAPERL
Boolean which tells MakeMaker, that it should include the rules tomake a perl. This is handled automatically as a switch byMakeMaker. The user normally does not need it.
MAKEFILE_OLD
When 'make clean' or similar is run, the $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) will bebacked up at this location.

Defaults to $(FIRST_MAKEFILE).old or $(FIRST_MAKEFILE)_old on VMS.

MAN1PODS
Hashref of pod-containing files. MakeMaker will default this to allEXE_FILES files that include POD directives. The files listedhere will be converted to man pages and installed as was requestedat Configure time.
MAN3PODS
Hashref that assigns to *.pm and *.pod files the files into which themanpages are to be written. MakeMaker parses all *.pod and *.pm filesfor POD directives. Files that contain POD will be the default keys ofthe MAN3PODS hashref. These will then be converted to man pages during"make" and will be installed during "make install".
MAP_TARGET
If it is intended, that a new perl binary be produced, this variablemay hold a name for that binary. Defaults to perl
META_ADD
META_MERGE
A hashrefs of items to add to the META.yml.

They differ in how they behave if they have the same key as thedefault metadata. META_ADD will override the default value with it'sown. META_MERGE will merge its value with the default.

Unless you want to override the defaults, prefer META_MERGE so as toget the advantage of any future defaults.

MYEXTLIB
If the extension links to a library that it builds set this to thename of the library (see SDBM_File)
NAME
Perl module name for this extension (DBD::Oracle). This will defaultto the directory name but should be explicitly defined in theMakefile.PL.
NEEDS_LINKING
MakeMaker will figure out if an extension contains linkable codeanywhere down the directory tree, and will set this variableaccordingly, but you can speed it up a very little bit if you definethis boolean variable yourself.
NOECHO
Command so make does not print the literal commands its running.

By setting it to an empty string you can generate a Makefile thatprints all commands. Mainly used in debugging MakeMaker itself.

Defaults to "@".

NORECURS
Boolean. Attribute to inhibit descending into subdirectories.
NO_META
When true, suppresses the generation and addition to the MANIFEST ofthe META.yml module meta-data file during 'make distdir'.

Defaults to false.

NO_VC
In general, any generated Makefile checks for the current version ofMakeMaker and the version the Makefile was built under. If NO_VC isset, the version check is neglected. Do not write this into yourMakefile.PL, use it interactively instead.
OBJECT
List of object files, defaults to '$(BASEEXT)$(OBJ_EXT)', but can be a longstring containing all object files, e.g. ``tkpBind.otkpButton.o tkpCanvas.o''

(Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME, and OBJ_EXT is $Config{obj_ext}.)

OPTIMIZE
Defaults to "-O". Set it to "-g" to turn debugging on. The flag ispassed to subdirectory makes.
PERL
Perl binary for tasks that can be done by miniperl
PERL_CORE
Set only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl coredistribution.
PERLMAINCC
The call to the program that is able to compile perlmain.c. Defaultsto $(CC).
PERL_ARCHLIB
Same as for PERL_LIB, but for architecture dependent files.

Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl coredistribution (because normally $(PERL_ARCHLIB) is automatically in @INC,and adding it would get in the way of PERL5LIB).

PERL_LIB
Directory containing the Perl library to use.

Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl coredistribution (because normally $(PERL_LIB) is automatically in @INC,and adding it would get in the way of PERL5LIB).

PERL_MALLOC_OK
defaults to 0. Should be set to TRUE if the extension can work withthe memory allocation routines substituted by the Perl malloc() subsystem.This should be applicable to most extensions with exceptions of those
*
with bugs in memory allocations which are caught by Perl's malloc();
*
which interact with the memory allocator in other ways than viamalloc(), realloc(), free(), calloc(), sbrk() and brk();
*
which rely on special alignment which is not provided by Perl's malloc().

NOTE. Negligence to set this flag in any one of loaded extensionnullifies many advantages of Perl's malloc(), such as better usage ofsystem resources, error detection, memory usage reporting, catchable failureof memory allocations, etc.

PERLPREFIX
Directory under which core modules are to be installed.

Defaults to $Config{installprefixexp} falling back to$Config{installprefix}, $Config{prefixexp} or $Config{prefix} should$Config{installprefixexp} not exist.

Overridden by PREFIX.

PERLRUN
Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl. It will set upextra necessary flags for you.
PERLRUNINST
Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl to work withmodules. It will add things like -I$(INST_ARCH) and other necessaryflags so perl can see the modules you're about to install.
PERL_SRC
Directory containing the Perl source code (use of this should beavoided, it may be undefined)
PERM_RW
Desired permission for read/writable files. Defaults to 644.See also ``perm_rw'' in MM_Unix.
PERM_RWX
Desired permission for executable files. Defaults to 755.See also ``perm_rwx'' in MM_Unix.
PL_FILES
MakeMaker can run programs to generate files for you at build time.By default any file named *.PL (except Makefile.PL and Build.PL) inthe top level directory will be assumed to be a Perl program and runpassing its own basename in as an argument. For example...

    perl foo.PL foo

This behavior can be overridden by supplying your own set of files tosearch. PL_FILES accepts a hash ref, the key being the file to runand the value is passed in as the first argument when the PL file is run.

    PL_FILES => {'bin/foobar.PL' => 'bin/foobar'}

Would run bin/foobar.PL like this:

    perl bin/foobar.PL bin/foobar

If multiple files from one program are desired an array ref can be used.

    PL_FILES => {'bin/foobar.PL' => [qw(bin/foobar1 bin/foobar2)]}

In this case the program will be run multiple times using each target file.

    perl bin/foobar.PL bin/foobar1    perl bin/foobar.PL bin/foobar2

PL files are normally run after pm_to_blib and include INST_LIB andINST_ARCH in its @INC so the just built modules can beaccessed... unless the PL file is making a module (or anything else inPM) in which case it is run before pm_to_blib and does not includeINST_LIB and INST_ARCH in its @INC. This apparently odd behavioris there for backwards compatibility (and its somewhat DWIM).

PM
Hashref of .pm files and *.pl files to be installed. e.g.

  {'name_of_file.pm' => '$(INST_LIBDIR)/install_as.pm'}

By default this will include *.pm and *.pl and the files found inthe PMLIBDIRS directories. Defining PM in theMakefile.PL will override PMLIBDIRS.

PMLIBDIRS
Ref to array of subdirectories containing library files. Defaults to[ 'lib', $(BASEEXT) ]. The directories will be scanned and any filesthey contain will be installed in the corresponding location in thelibrary. A libscan() method can be used to alter the behaviour.Defining PM in the Makefile.PL will override PMLIBDIRS.

(Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME.)

PM_FILTER
A filter program, in the traditional Unix sense (input from stdin, outputto stdout) that is passed on each .pm file during the build (in thepm_to_blib() phase). It is empty by default, meaning no filtering is done.

Great care is necessary when defining the command if quoting needs to bedone. For instance, you would need to say:

  {'PM_FILTER' => 'grep -v \\"^\\#\\"'}

to remove all the leading comments on the fly during the build. Theextra \\ are necessary, unfortunately, because this variable is interpolatedwithin the context of a Perl program built on the command line, and doublequotes are what is used with the -e switch to build that command line. The# is escaped for the Makefile, since what is going to be generated will thenbe:

  PM_FILTER = grep -v \"^\#\"

Without the \\ before the #, we'd have the start of a Makefile comment,and the macro would be incorrectly defined.

POLLUTE
Release 5.005 grandfathered old global symbol names by providing preprocessormacros for extension source compatibility. As of release 5.6, thesepreprocessor definitions are not available by default. The POLLUTE flagspecifies that the old names should still be defined:

  perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1

Please inform the module author if this is necessary to successfully installa module under 5.6 or later.

PPM_INSTALL_EXEC
Name of the executable used to run "PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT" below. (e.g. perl)
PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT
Name of the script that gets executed by the Perl Package Manager afterthe installation of a package.
PREFIX
This overrides all the default install locations. Man pages,libraries, scripts, etc... MakeMaker will try to make an educatedguess about where to place things under the new PREFIX based on yourConfig defaults. Failing that, it will fall back to a structurewhich should be sensible for your platform.

If you specify LIB or any INSTALL* variables they will not be effectedby the PREFIX.

PREREQ_FATAL
Bool. If this parameter is true, failing to have the required modules(or the right versions thereof) will be fatal. "perl Makefile.PL"will "die" instead of simply informing the user of the missing dependencies.

It is extremely rare to have to use "PREREQ_FATAL". Its use by moduleauthors is strongly discouraged and should never be used lightly.Module installation tools have ways of resolving umet dependencies butto do that they need a Makefile. Using "PREREQ_FATAL" breaks this.That's bad.

The only situation where it is appropriate is when you havedependencies that are indispensible to actually write aMakefile. For example, MakeMaker's Makefile.PL needs File::Spec.If its not available it cannot write the Makefile.

Note: see Test::Harness for a shortcut for stopping tests earlyif you are missing dependencies and are afraid that users mightuse your module with an incomplete environment.

PREREQ_PM
Hashref: Names of modules that need to be available to run thisextension (e.g. Fcntl for SDBM_File) are the keys of the hash and thedesired version is the value. If the required version number is 0, weonly check if any version is installed already.
PREREQ_PRINT
Bool. If this parameter is true, the prerequisites will be printed tostdout and MakeMaker will exit. The output format is an evalable hashref.

$PREREQ_PM = {
               'A::B' => Vers1,
               'C::D' => Vers2,
               ...
             };

PRINT_PREREQ
RedHatism for "PREREQ_PRINT". The output format is different, though:

    perl(A::B)>=Vers1 perl(C::D)>=Vers2 ...
SITEPREFIX
Like PERLPREFIX, but only for the site install locations.

Defaults to $Config{siteprefixexp}. Perls prior to 5.6.0 didn't havean explicit siteprefix in the Config. In those cases$Config{installprefix} will be used.

Overridable by PREFIX

SIGN
When true, perform the generation and addition to the MANIFEST of theSIGNATURE file in the distdir during 'make distdir', via 'cpansign-s'.

Note that you need to install the Module::Signature module toperform this operation.

Defaults to false.

SKIP
Arrayref. E.g. [qw(name1 name2)] skip (do not write) sections of theMakefile. Caution! Do not use the SKIP attribute for the negligiblespeedup. It may seriously damage the resulting Makefile. Only use itif you really need it.
TYPEMAPS
Ref to array of typemap file names. Use this when the typemaps arein some directory other than the current directory or when they arenot named typemap. The last typemap in the list takesprecedence. A typemap in the current directory has highestprecedence, even if it isn't listed in TYPEMAPS. The default systemtypemap has lowest precedence.
VENDORPREFIX
Like PERLPREFIX, but only for the vendor install locations.

Defaults to $Config{vendorprefixexp}.

Overridable by PREFIX

VERBINST
If true, make install will be verbose
VERSION
Your version number for distributing the package. This defaults to0.1.
VERSION_FROM
Instead of specifying the VERSION in the Makefile.PL you can letMakeMaker parse a file to determine the version number. The parsingroutine requires that the file named by VERSION_FROM contains onesingle line to compute the version number. The first line in the filethat contains the regular expression

    /([\$*])(([\w\:\']*)\bVERSION)\b.*\=/

will be evaluated with eval() and the value of the named variableafter the eval() will be assigned to the VERSION attribute of theMakeMaker object. The following lines will be parsed o.k.:

    $VERSION   = '1.00';    *VERSION   = \'1.01';    ($VERSION) = q$Revision: 66493 $ =~ /(\d+)/g;    $FOO::VERSION = '1.10';    *FOO::VERSION = \'1.11';

but these will fail:

    # Bad    my $VERSION         = '1.01';    local $VERSION      = '1.02';    local $FOO::VERSION = '1.30';

``Version strings'' are incompatible should not be used.

    # Bad    $VERSION = 1.2.3;    $VERSION = v1.2.3;

version objects are fine. As of MakeMaker 6.35 version.pm will beautomatically loaded, but you must declare the dependency on version.pm.For compatibility with older MakeMaker you should load on the same line as $VERSION is declared.

    # All on one line    use version; our $VERSION = qv(1.2.3);

(Putting "my" or "local" on the preceding line will work o.k.)

The file named in VERSION_FROM is not added as a dependency toMakefile. This is not really correct, but it would be a major painduring development to have to rewrite the Makefile for any smallishchange in that file. If you want to make sure that the Makefilecontains the correct VERSION macro after any change of the file, youwould have to do something like

    depend => { Makefile => '$(VERSION_FROM)' }

See attribute "depend" below.

VERSION_SYM
A sanitized VERSION with . replaced by _. For places where . hasspecial meaning (some filesystems, RCS labels, etc...)
XS
Hashref of .xs files. MakeMaker will default this. e.g.

  {'name_of_file.xs' => 'name_of_file.c'}

The .c files will automatically be included in the list of filesdeleted by a make clean.

XSOPT
String of options to pass to xsubpp. This might include "-C++" or"-extern". Do not include typemaps here; the TYPEMAP parameter exists forthat purpose.
XSPROTOARG
May be set to an empty string, which is identical to "-prototypes", or"-noprototypes". See the xsubpp documentation for details. MakeMakerdefaults to the empty string.
XS_VERSION
Your version number for the .xs file of this package. This defaultsto the value of the VERSION attribute.
 

Additional lowercase attributes

can be used to pass parameters to the methods which implement thatpart of the Makefile. Parameters are specified as a hash ref but arepassed to the method as a hash.
clean
  {FILES => "*.xyz foo"}
depend
  {ANY_TARGET => ANY_DEPENDENCY, ...}

(ANY_TARGET must not be given a double-colon rule by MakeMaker.)

dist
  {TARFLAGS => 'cvfF', COMPRESS => 'gzip', SUFFIX => '.gz',  SHAR => 'shar -m', DIST_CP => 'ln', ZIP => '/bin/zip',  ZIPFLAGS => '-rl', DIST_DEFAULT => 'private tardist' }

If you specify COMPRESS, then SUFFIX should also be altered, as it isneeded to tell make the target file of the compression. SettingDIST_CP to ln can be useful, if you need to preserve the timestamps onyour files. DIST_CP can take the values 'cp', which copies the file,'ln', which links the file, and 'best' which copies symbolic links andlinks the rest. Default is 'best'.

dynamic_lib
  {ARMAYBE => 'ar', OTHERLDFLAGS => '...', INST_DYNAMIC_DEP => '...'}
linkext
  {LINKTYPE => 'static', 'dynamic' or ''}

NB: Extensions that have nothing but *.pm files had to say

  {LINKTYPE => ''}

with Pre-5.0 MakeMakers. Since version 5.00 of MakeMaker such a linecan be deleted safely. MakeMaker recognizes when there's nothing tobe linked.

macro
  {ANY_MACRO => ANY_VALUE, ...}
postamble
Anything put here will be passed to MY::postamble() if you have one.
realclean
  {FILES => '$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/*.xyz'}
test
  {TESTS => 't/*.t'}
tool_autosplit
  {MAXLEN => 8}
 

Overriding MakeMaker Methods

If you cannot achieve the desired Makefile behaviour by specifyingattributes you may define private subroutines in the Makefile.PL.Each subroutine returns the text it wishes to have written tothe Makefile. To override a section of the Makefile you caneither say:

        sub MY::c_o { "new literal text" }

or you can edit the default by saying something like:

        package MY; # so that "SUPER" works right        sub c_o {            my $inherited = shift->SUPER::c_o(@_);            $inherited =~ s/old text/new text/;            $inherited;        }

If you are running experiments with embedding perl as a library intoother applications, you might find MakeMaker is not sufficient. You'dbetter have a look at ExtUtils::Embed which is a collection of utilitiesfor embedding.

If you still need a different solution, try to develop anothersubroutine that fits your needs and submit the diffs to"makemakerAATTperl.org"

For a complete description of all MakeMaker methods seeExtUtils::MM_Unix.

Here is a simple example of how to add a new target to the generatedMakefile:

    sub MY::postamble {        return <<'MAKE_FRAG';    $(MYEXTLIB): sdbm/Makefile            cd sdbm && $(MAKE) all

    MAKE_FRAG    }
 

The End Of Cargo Cult Programming

WriteMakefile() now does some basic sanity checks on its parameters toprotect against typos and malformatted values. This means some thingswhich happened to work in the past will now throw warnings andpossibly produce internal errors.

Some of the most common mistakes:

MAN3PODS => ' '
This is commonly used to suppress the creation of man pages. MAN3PODStakes a hash ref not a string, but the above worked by accident in oldversions of MakeMaker.

The correct code is "MAN3PODS => { }".

 

Hintsfile support

MakeMaker.pm uses the architecture specific information fromConfig.pm. In addition it evaluates architecture specific hints filesin a "hints/" directory. The hints files are expected to be namedlike their counterparts in "PERL_SRC/hints", but with an ".pl" filename extension (eg. "next_3_2.pl"). They are simply "eval"ed byMakeMaker within the WriteMakefile() subroutine, and can be used toexecute commands as well as to include special variables. The ruleswhich hintsfile is chosen are the same as in Configure.

The hintsfile is eval()ed immediately after the arguments given toWriteMakefile are stuffed into a hash reference $self but before thisreference becomes blessed. So if you want to do the equivalent tooverride or create an attribute you would say something like

    $self->{LIBS} = ['-ldbm -lucb -lc'];
 

Distribution Support

For authors of extensions MakeMaker provides several Makefiletargets. Most of the support comes from the ExtUtils::Manifest module,where additional documentation can be found.
make distcheck
reports which files are below the build directory but not in theMANIFEST file and vice versa. (See ExtUtils::Manifest::fullcheck() fordetails)
make skipcheck
reports which files are skipped due to the entries in the"MANIFEST.SKIP" file (See ExtUtils::Manifest::skipcheck() fordetails)
make distclean
does a realclean first and then the distcheck. Note that this is notneeded to build a new distribution as long as you are sure that theMANIFEST file is ok.
make manifest
rewrites the MANIFEST file, adding all remaining files found (SeeExtUtils::Manifest::mkmanifest() for details)
make distdir
Copies all the files that are in the MANIFEST file to a newly createddirectory with the name "$(DISTNAME)-$(VERSION)". If that directoryexists, it will be removed first.

Additionally, it will create a META.yml module meta-data file in thedistdir and add this to the distdir's MANIFEST. You can shut thisbehavior off with the NO_META flag.

make disttest
Makes a distdir first, and runs a "perl Makefile.PL", a make, anda make test in that directory.
make tardist
First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a nullcommand, followed by $(TO_UNIX), which defaults to a null command underUNIX, and will convert files in distribution directory to UNIX formatotherwise. Next it runs "tar" on that directory into a tarfile anddeletes the directory. Finishes with a command $(POSTOP) whichdefaults to a null command.
make dist
Defaults to $(DIST_DEFAULT) which in turn defaults to tardist.
make uutardist
Runs a tardist first and uuencodes the tarfile.
make shdist
First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a nullcommand. Next it runs "shar" on that directory into a sharfile anddeletes the intermediate directory again. Finishes with a command$(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command. Note: For shdist to workproperly a "shar" program that can handle directories is mandatory.
make zipdist
First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a nullcommand. Runs "$(ZIP) $(ZIPFLAGS)" on that directory into azipfile. Then deletes that directory. Finishes with a command$(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.
make ci
Does a $(CI) and a $(RCS_LABEL) on all files in the MANIFEST file.

Customization of the dist targets can be done by specifying a hashreference to the dist attribute of the WriteMakefile call. Thefollowing parameters are recognized:

    CI           ('ci -u')    COMPRESS     ('gzip --best')    POSTOP       ('@ :')    PREOP        ('@ :')    TO_UNIX      (depends on the system)    RCS_LABEL    ('rcs -q -Nv$(VERSION_SYM):')    SHAR         ('shar')    SUFFIX       ('.gz')    TAR          ('tar')    TARFLAGS     ('cvf')    ZIP          ('zip')    ZIPFLAGS     ('-r')

An example:

    WriteMakefile( 'dist' => { COMPRESS=>"bzip2", SUFFIX=>".bz2" })
 

Module Meta-Data

Long plaguing users of MakeMaker based modules has been the problem ofgetting basic information about the module out of the sourceswithout running the Makefile.PL and doing a bunch of messyheuristics on the resulting Makefile. To this end a simple modulemeta-data file has been introduced, META.yml.

META.yml is a YAML document (see http://www.yaml.org) containingbasic information about the module (name, version, prerequisites...)in an easy to read format. The format is developed and defined by theModule::Build developers (see http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec.html)

MakeMaker will automatically generate a META.yml file for you andadd it to your MANIFEST as part of the 'distdir' target (and thusthe 'dist' target). This is intended to seamlessly and rapidlypopulate CPAN with module meta-data. If you wish to shut this featureoff, set the "NO_META" "WriteMakefile()"