MAN page from Mandriva 2007 coreutils-doc-5.97-6.mdv2007.0.mde.i586.rpm
Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: October 2006Index
chmod - change file access permissions
]... OCTAL-MODE FILE
]... --reference=RFILE FILE
This manual pagedocuments the GNU version ofchmod
changes the permissions of each given file according tomode
,which can be either a symbolic representation of changes to make, oran octal number representing the bit pattern for the new permissions.
The format of a symbolic mode is`[ugoa...][[+-=][rwxXstugo...]...][,...]'. Multiple symbolicoperations can be given, separated by commas.
A combination of the letters `ugoa' controls which users' access tothe file will be changed: the user who owns it (u), other users in thefile's group (g), other users not in the file's group (o), or allusers (a). If none of these are given, the effect is as if `a' weregiven, but bits that are set in the umask are not affected.
The operator `+' causes the permissions selected to be added to theexisting permissions of each file; `-' causes them to be removed; and`=' causes them to be the only permissions that the file has.
The letters `rwxXstugo' select the new permissions for the affectedusers: read (r), write (w), execute (or access for directories) (x),execute only if the file is a directory or already has executepermission for some user (X), set user or group ID on execution (s),sticky (t), the permissions granted to the user who owns the file (u),the permissions granted to other users who are members of the file's group (g),and the permissions granted to users that are in neither of the two precedingcategories (o).
A numeric mode is from one to four octal digits (0-7), derived byadding up the bits with values 4, 2, and 1. Any omitted digits areassumed to be leading zeros. The first digit selects the set user ID(4) and set group ID (2) and sticky (1) attributes. The second digitselects permissions for the user who owns the file: read (4), write (2),and execute (1); the third selects permissions for other users in thefile's group, with the same values; and the fourth for other users notin the file's group, with the same values.
chmodnever changes the permissions of symbolic links; thechmodsystem call cannot change their permissions. This is not a problemsince the permissions of symbolic links are never used.However, for each symbolic link listed on the command line,chmodchanges the permissions of the pointed-to file.In contrast,chmodignores symbolic links encountered during recursive directorytraversals.
On older Unix systems, the sticky bit caused executable files to behoarded in swap space. This feature is not useful on modern VMsystems, and the Linux kernel ignores the sticky bit on files. Otherkernels may use the sticky bit on files for system-defined purposes.On some systems, only the superuser can set the sticky bit on files.
When the sticky bit is set on a directory, files in that directory maybe unlinked or renamed only by root or their owner. Without thesticky bit, anyone able to write to the directory can delete or renamefiles. The sticky bit is commonly found on directories, such as /tmp,that are world-writable.
Change the mode of each FILE to MODE.
- -c, --changes
- like verbose but report only when a change is made
- do not treat `/' specially (the default)
- fail to operate recursively on `/'
- -f, --silent, --quiet
- suppress most error messages
- -v, --verbose
- output a diagnostic for every file processed
- use RFILE's mode instead of MODE values
- -R, --recursive
- change files and directories recursively
- display this help and exit
- output version information and exit
Each MODE is of the form `[ugoa]*([-+=]([rwxXst]*|[ugo]))+'.
Written by David MacKenzie and Jim Meyering.
Report bugs to <bug-coreutilsAATTgnu.org>.
Copyright © 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms ofthe GNU General Public License <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html
>.There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
The full documentation forchmod
is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If theinfo
programs are properly installed at your site, the command
- info chmod
should give you access to the complete manual.
- STICKY FILES
- STICKY DIRECTORIES
- REPORTING BUGS
- SEE ALSO
This document was created byman2html,using the manual pages.