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MAN page from OpenSuSE perl-base-5.10.0-64.5.x86_64.rpm

PERL

Section: Perl Programmers Reference Guide (1)
Updated: 2007-12-18
Index 

NAME

perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language 

SYNOPSIS

perl  -sTtuUWX ]
        -hv ] [ -V[:configvar] ]
        -cw ] [ -d[t][:debugger] ] [ -D[number/list] ]
        -pna ] [ -Fpattern ] [ -l[octal] ] [ -0[octal/hexadecimal] ]
        -Idir ] [ -m[-]module ] [ -M[-]'module...' ] [ -f ]
        -C [number/list]
        -P ]
        -S ]
        -x[dir] ]
        -i[extension] ]
        -e 'command' ] [ -- ] [ programfile ] [ argument ]...

If you're new to Perl, you should start with perlintro, which is a general intro for beginners and provides some background to help younavigate the rest of Perl's extensive documentation.

For ease of access, the Perl manual has been split up into several sections. 

Overview

    perl                Perl overview (this section)    perlintro           Perl introduction for beginners    perltoc             Perl documentation table of contents
 

Tutorials

    perlreftut          Perl references short introduction    perldsc             Perl data structures intro    perllol             Perl data structures: arrays of arrays    perlrequick         Perl regular expressions quick start    perlretut           Perl regular expressions tutorial    perlboot            Perl OO tutorial for beginners    perltoot            Perl OO tutorial, part 1    perltooc            Perl OO tutorial, part 2    perlbot             Perl OO tricks and examples    perlstyle           Perl style guide    perlcheat           Perl cheat sheet    perltrap            Perl traps for the unwary    perldebtut          Perl debugging tutorial    perlfaq             Perl frequently asked questions      perlfaq1          General Questions About Perl      perlfaq2          Obtaining and Learning about Perl      perlfaq3          Programming Tools      perlfaq4          Data Manipulation      perlfaq5          Files and Formats      perlfaq6          Regexes      perlfaq7          Perl Language Issues      perlfaq8          System Interaction      perlfaq9          Networking
 

Reference Manual

    perlsyn             Perl syntax    perldata            Perl data structures    perlop              Perl operators and precedence    perlsub             Perl subroutines    perlfunc            Perl built-in functions      perlopentut       Perl open() tutorial      perlpacktut       Perl pack() and unpack() tutorial    perlpod             Perl plain old documentation    perlpodspec         Perl plain old documentation format specification    perlrun             Perl execution and options    perldiag            Perl diagnostic messages    perllexwarn         Perl warnings and their control    perldebug           Perl debugging    perlvar             Perl predefined variables    perlre              Perl regular expressions, the rest of the story    perlrebackslash     Perl regular expression backslash sequences    perlrecharclass     Perl regular expression character classes    perlreref           Perl regular expressions quick reference    perlref             Perl references, the rest of the story    perlform            Perl formats    perlobj             Perl objects    perltie             Perl objects hidden behind simple variables      perldbmfilter     Perl DBM filters    perlipc             Perl interprocess communication    perlfork            Perl fork() information    perlnumber          Perl number semantics    perlthrtut          Perl threads tutorial      perlothrtut       Old Perl threads tutorial    perlport            Perl portability guide    perllocale          Perl locale support    perluniintro        Perl Unicode introduction    perlunicode         Perl Unicode support    perlunifaq          Perl Unicode FAQ    perlunitut          Perl Unicode tutorial    perlebcdic          Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms    perlsec             Perl security    perlmod             Perl modules: how they work    perlmodlib          Perl modules: how to write and use    perlmodstyle        Perl modules: how to write modules with style    perlmodinstall      Perl modules: how to install from CPAN    perlnewmod          Perl modules: preparing a new module for distribution    perlpragma          Perl modules: writing a user pragma    perlutil            utilities packaged with the Perl distribution    perlcompile         Perl compiler suite intro    perlfilter          Perl source filters    perlglossary        Perl Glossary
 

Internals and C Language Interface

    perlembed           Perl ways to embed perl in your C or C++ application    perldebguts         Perl debugging guts and tips    perlxstut           Perl XS tutorial    perlxs              Perl XS application programming interface    perlclib            Internal replacements for standard C library functions    perlguts            Perl internal functions for those doing extensions    perlcall            Perl calling conventions from C    perlreapi           Perl regular expression plugin interface    perlreguts          Perl regular expression engine internals    perlapi             Perl API listing (autogenerated)    perlintern          Perl internal functions (autogenerated)    perliol             C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers    perlapio            Perl internal IO abstraction interface    perlhack            Perl hackers guide
 

Miscellaneous

    perlbook            Perl book information    perlcommunity       Perl community information    perltodo            Perl things to do    perldoc             Look up Perl documentation in Pod format    perlhist            Perl history records    perldelta           Perl changes since previous version    perl595delta        Perl changes in version 5.9.5    perl594delta        Perl changes in version 5.9.4    perl593delta        Perl changes in version 5.9.3    perl592delta        Perl changes in version 5.9.2    perl591delta        Perl changes in version 5.9.1    perl590delta        Perl changes in version 5.9.0    perl588delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.8    perl587delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.7    perl586delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.6    perl585delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.5    perl584delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.4    perl583delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.3    perl582delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.2    perl581delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.1    perl58delta         Perl changes in version 5.8.0    perl573delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.3    perl572delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.2    perl571delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.1    perl570delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.0    perl561delta        Perl changes in version 5.6.1    perl56delta         Perl changes in version 5.6    perl5005delta       Perl changes in version 5.005    perl5004delta       Perl changes in version 5.004    perlartistic        Perl Artistic License    perlgpl             GNU General Public License
 

Language-Specific

    perlcn              Perl for Simplified Chinese (in EUC-CN)    perljp              Perl for Japanese (in EUC-JP)    perlko              Perl for Korean (in EUC-KR)    perltw              Perl for Traditional Chinese (in Big5)
 

Platform-Specific

    perlaix             Perl notes for AIX    perlamiga           Perl notes for AmigaOS    perlapollo          Perl notes for Apollo DomainOS    perlbeos            Perl notes for BeOS    perlbs2000          Perl notes for POSIX-BC BS2000    perlce              Perl notes for WinCE    perlcygwin          Perl notes for Cygwin    perldgux            Perl notes for DG/UX    perldos             Perl notes for DOS    perlepoc            Perl notes for EPOC    perlfreebsd         Perl notes for FreeBSD    perlhpux            Perl notes for HP-UX    perlhurd            Perl notes for Hurd    perlirix            Perl notes for Irix    perllinux           Perl notes for Linux    perlmachten         Perl notes for Power MachTen    perlmacos           Perl notes for Mac OS (Classic)    perlmacosx          Perl notes for Mac OS X    perlmint            Perl notes for MiNT    perlmpeix           Perl notes for MPE/iX    perlnetware         Perl notes for NetWare    perlopenbsd         Perl notes for OpenBSD    perlos2             Perl notes for OS/2    perlos390           Perl notes for OS/390    perlos400           Perl notes for OS/400    perlplan9           Perl notes for Plan 9    perlqnx             Perl notes for QNX    perlriscos          Perl notes for RISC OS    perlsolaris         Perl notes for Solaris    perlsymbian         Perl notes for Symbian    perltru64           Perl notes for Tru64    perluts             Perl notes for UTS    perlvmesa           Perl notes for VM/ESA    perlvms             Perl notes for VMS    perlvos             Perl notes for Stratus VOS    perlwin32           Perl notes for Windows

By default, the manpages listed above are installed in the /usr/local/man/ directory.

Extensive additional documentation for Perl modules is available. Thedefault configuration for perl will place this additional documentationin the /usr/local/lib/perl5/man directory (or else in the mansubdirectory of the Perl library directory). Some of this additionaldocumentation is distributed standard with Perl, but you'll also finddocumentation for third-party modules there.

You should be able to view Perl's documentation with your man(1)program by including the proper directories in the appropriate start-upfiles, or in the MANPATH environment variable. To find out where theconfiguration has installed the manpages, type:

    perl -V:man.dir

If the directories have a common stem, such as /usr/local/man/man1and /usr/local/man/man3, you need only to add that stem(/usr/local/man) to your man(1) configuration files or your MANPATHenvironment variable. If they do not share a stem, you'll have to addboth stems.

If that doesn't work for some reason, you can still use thesupplied perldoc script to view module information. You mightalso look into getting a replacement man program.

If something strange has gone wrong with your program and you're notsure where you should look for help, try the -w switch first. Itwill often point out exactly where the trouble is. 

DESCRIPTION

Perl is a language optimized for scanning arbitrarytext files, extracting information from those text files, and printingreports based on that information. It's also a good language for manysystem management tasks. The language is intended to be practical(easy to use, efficient, complete) rather than beautiful (tiny,elegant, minimal).

Perl combines (in the author's opinion, anyway) some of the bestfeatures of C, sed, awk, and sh, so people familiar withthose languages should have little difficulty with it. (Languagehistorians will also note some vestiges of csh, Pascal, and evenBASIC-PLUS.) Expression syntax corresponds closely to Cexpression syntax. Unlike most Unix utilities, Perl does notarbitrarily limit the size of your data---if you've got the memory,Perl can slurp in your whole file as a single string. Recursion is ofunlimited depth. And the tables used by hashes (sometimes called``associative arrays'') grow as necessary to prevent degradedperformance. Perl can use sophisticated pattern matching techniques toscan large amounts of data quickly. Although optimized forscanning text, Perl can also deal with binary data, and can make dbmfiles look like hashes. Setuid Perl scripts are safer than C programsthrough a dataflow tracing mechanism that prevents many stupidsecurity holes.

If you have a problem that would ordinarily use sed or awk orsh, but it exceeds their capabilities or must run a little faster,and you don't want to write the silly thing in C, then Perl may be foryou. There are also translators to turn your sed and awkscripts into Perl scripts.

But wait, there's more...

Begun in 1993 (see perlhist), Perl version 5 is nearly a completerewrite that provides the following additional benefits:

*
modularity and reusability using innumerable modules

Described in perlmod, perlmodlib, and perlmodinstall.

*
embeddable and extensible

Described in perlembed, perlxstut, perlxs, perlcall,perlguts, and xsubpp.

*
roll-your-own magic variables (including multiple simultaneous DBMimplementations)

Described in perltie and AnyDBM_File.

*
subroutines can now be overridden, autoloaded, and prototyped

Described in perlsub.

*
arbitrarily nested data structures and anonymous functions

Described in perlreftut, perlref, perldsc, and perllol.

*
object-oriented programming

Described in perlobj, perlboot, perltoot, perltooc,and perlbot.

*
support for light-weight processes (threads)

Described in perlthrtut and threads.

*
support for Unicode, internationalization, and localization

Described in perluniintro, perllocale and Locale::Maketext.

*
lexical scoping

Described in perlsub.

*
regular expression enhancements

Described in perlre, with additional examples in perlop.

*
enhanced debugger and interactive Perl environment,with integrated editor support

Described in perldebtut, perldebug and perldebguts.

*
POSIX 1003.1 compliant library

Described in POSIX.

Okay, that's definitely enough hype. 

AVAILABILITY

Perl is available for most operating systems, including virtuallyall Unix-like platforms. See ``Supported Platforms'' in perlportfor a listing. 

ENVIRONMENT

See perlrun. 

AUTHOR

Larry Wall <larryAATTwall.org>, with the help of oodles of other folks.

If your Perl success stories and testimonials may be of help to others who wish to advocate the use of Perl in their applications, or if you wish to simply express your gratitude to Larry and the Perl developers, please write to perl-thanksAATTperl.org . 

FILES

 "@INC"                 locations of perl libraries
 

SEE ALSO

 a2p    awk to perl translator s2p    sed to perl translator http://www.perl.org/       the Perl homepage http://www.perl.com/       Perl articles (O'Reilly) http://www.cpan.org/       the Comprehensive Perl Archive http://www.pm.org/         the Perl Mongers
 

DIAGNOSTICS

The "use warnings" pragma (and the -w switch) produces some lovely diagnostics.

See perldiag for explanations of all Perl's diagnostics. The "usediagnostics" pragma automatically turns Perl's normally terse warningsand errors into these longer forms.

Compilation errors will tell you the line number of the error, with anindication of the next token or token type that was to be examined.(In a script passed to Perl via -e switches, each-e is counted as one line.)

Setuid scripts have additional constraints that can produce errormessages such as ``Insecure dependency''. See perlsec.

Did we mention that you should definitely consider using the -wswitch? 

BUGS

The -w switch is not mandatory.

Perl is at the mercy of your machine's definitions of variousoperations such as type casting, atof(), and floating-pointoutput with sprintf().

If your stdio requires a seek or eof between reads and writes on aparticular stream, so does Perl. (This doesn't apply to sysread()and syswrite().)

While none of the built-in data types have any arbitrary size limits(apart from memory size), there are still a few arbitrary limits: agiven variable name may not be longer than 251 characters. Line numbersdisplayed by diagnostics are internally stored as short integers,so they are limited to a maximum of 65535 (higher numbers usually beingaffected by wraparound).

You may mail your bug reports (be sure to include full configurationinformation as output by the myconfig program in the perl sourcetree, or by "perl -V") to perlbugAATTperl.org . If you've succeededin compiling perl, the perlbug script in the utils/ subdirectorycan be used to help mail in a bug report.

Perl actually stands for Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister, butdon't tell anyone I said that. 

NOTES

The Perl motto is ``There's more than one way to do it.'' Divininghow many more is left as an exercise to the reader.

The three principal virtues of a programmer are Laziness,Impatience, and Hubris. See the Camel Book for why.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
Overview
Tutorials
Reference Manual
Internals and C Language Interface
Miscellaneous
Language-Specific
Platform-Specific
DESCRIPTION
AVAILABILITY
ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR
FILES
SEE ALSO
DIAGNOSTICS
BUGS
NOTES

This document was created byman2html,using the manual pages.