MAN page from Other MySQL-client-community-5.0.96-1.sles10.x86_64.rpm
Section: MySQL Database System (1)
mysqldump - a database backup program
- mysqldump [options] [db_name [tbl_name ...]]
DESCRIPTIONThemysqldumpclient is a backup program originally written by Igor Romanenko. It can be used to dump a database or a collection of databases for backup or transfer to another SQL server (not necessarily a MySQL server). The dump typically contains SQL statements to create the table, populate it, or both. However,mysqldumpcan also be used to generate files in CSV, other delimited text, or XML format.
If you are doing a backup on the server and your tables all areMyISAMtables, consider using themysqlhotcopyinstead because it can accomplish faster backups and faster restores. Seemysqlhotcopy(1).
There are three general ways to invokemysqldump:
shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name ...]shell> mysqldump [options] --databases db_name ...shell> mysqldump [options] --all-databases
If you do not name any tables followingdb_nameor if you use the--databasesor--all-databasesoption, entire databases are dumped.
mysqldumpdoes not dump theINFORMATION_SCHEMAdatabase. If you name that database explicitly on the command line,mysqldumpsilently ignores it.
To see a list of the options your version ofmysqldumpsupports, executemysqldump --help.
Somemysqldumpoptions are shorthand for groups of other options:
- *Use of--optis the same as specifying--add-drop-table,--add-locks,--create-options,--disable-keys,--extended-insert,--lock-tables,--quick, and--set-charset. All of the options that--optstands for also are on by default because--optis on by default.
- *Use of--compactis the same as specifying--skip-add-drop-table,--skip-add-locks,--skip-comments,--skip-disable-keys, and--skip-set-charsetoptions.
To reverse the effect of a group option, uses its--skip-xxxform (--skip-optor--skip-compact). It is also possible to select only part of the effect of a group option by following it with options that enable or disable specific features. Here are some examples:
- *To select the effect of--optexcept for some features, use the--skipoption for each feature. To disable extended inserts and memory buffering, use--opt--skip-extended-insert--skip-quick. (Actually,--skip-extended-insert--skip-quickis sufficient because--optis on by default.)
- *To reverse--optfor all features except index disabling and table locking, use--skip-opt--disable-keys--lock-tables.
When you selectively enable or disable the effect of a group option, order is important because options are processed first to last. For example,--disable-keys--lock-tables--skip-optwould not have the intended effect; it is the same as--skip-optby itself.
mysqldumpcan retrieve and dump table contents row by row, or it can retrieve the entire content from a table and buffer it in memory before dumping it. Buffering in memory can be a problem if you are dumping large tables. To dump tables row by row, use the--quickoption (or--opt, which enables--quick). The--optoption (and hence--quick) is enabled by default, so to enable memory buffering, use--skip-quick.
If you are using a recent version ofmysqldumpto generate a dump to be reloaded into a very old MySQL server, you should not use the--optor--extended-insertoption. Use--skip-optinstead.
Before MySQL 4.1.2, out-of-range numeric values such as-infandinf, as well asNaN(not-a-number) values are dumped bymysqldumpasNULL. You can see this using the following sample table:
mysql> CREATE TABLE t (f DOUBLE);mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(1e+111111111111111111111);mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(-1e111111111111111111111);mysql> SELECT f FROM t;+------+| f |+------+| inf || -inf |+------+
For this table,mysqldumpproduces the following data output:
---- Dumping data for table `t`--INSERT INTO t VALUES (NULL);INSERT INTO t VALUES (NULL);
The significance of this behavior is that if you dump and restore the table, the new table has contents that differ from the original contents. This problem is fixed as of MySQL 4.1.2; you cannot insertinfin the table, so thismysqldumpbehavior is only relevant when you deal with old servers.
For additional information aboutmysqldump, seeSection 6.4, lqUsing mysqldump for Backupsrq.
mysqldumpsupports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the[mysqldump]and[client]groups of an option file.mysqldumpalso supports the options for processing option files described atSection 22.214.171.124.1, lqCommand-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handlingrq.
Display a help message and exit.
Add aDROP DATABASEstatement before eachCREATE DATABASEstatement. This option is typically used in conjunction with the--all-databasesor--databasesoption because noCREATE DATABASEstatements are written unless one of those options is specified.
Add aDROP TABLEstatement before eachCREATE TABLEstatement.
Surround each table dump withLOCK TABLESandUNLOCK TABLESstatements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file is reloaded. SeeSection 126.96.36.199, lqSpeed of INSERT Statementsrq.
Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the--databasesoption and naming all the databases on the command line.
Permit creation of column names that are keywords. This works by prefixing each column name with the table name.
The directory where character sets are installed. SeeSection 9.5, lqCharacter Set Configurationrq.
Write additional information in the dump file such as program version, server version, and host. This option is enabled by default. To suppress this additional information, use--skip-comments.
Produce more compact output. This option enables the--skip-add-drop-table,--skip-add-locks,--skip-comments,--skip-disable-keys, and--skip-set-charsetoptions.
Prior to MySQL 5.0.48, this option did not create valid SQL if the database dump contained views. The recreation of views requires the creation and removal of temporary tables and this option suppressed the removal of those temporary tables. As a workaround, use--compactwith the--add-drop-tableoption and then manually adjust the dump file.
Produce output that is more compatible with other database systems or with older MySQL servers. The value ofnamecan beansi,mysql323,mysql40,postgresql,oracle,mssql,db2,maxdb,no_key_options,no_table_options, orno_field_options. To use several values, separate them by commas. These values have the same meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server SQL mode. SeeSection 5.1.6, lqServer SQL Modesrq.
This option does not guarantee compatibility with other servers. It only enables those SQL mode values that are currently available for making dump output more compatible. For example,--compatible=oracledoes not map data types to Oracle types or use Oracle comment syntax.
This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With older servers, it does nothing.
Use completeINSERTstatements that include column names.
Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.
Include all MySQL-specific table options in theCREATE TABLEstatements.
Dump several databases. Normally,mysqldumptreats the first name argument on the command line as a database name and following names as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as database names.CREATE DATABASEandUSEstatements are included in the output before each new database.
- *--debug[=debug_options],-# [debug_options]
Write a debugging log. A typicaldebug_optionsstring is'd:t:o,file_name'. The default value is'd:t:o,/tmp/mysqldump.trace'.
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.32.
Usecharset_nameas the default character set. SeeSection 9.5, lqCharacter Set Configurationrq. If no character set is specified,mysqldumpusesutf8, and earlier versions uselatin1.
This option has no effect for output data files produced by using the--taboption. See the description for that option.
WriteINSERT DELAYEDstatements rather thanINSERTstatements.
On a master replication server, delete the binary logs by sending aPURGE BINARY LOGSstatement to the server after performing the dump operation. This option automatically enables--master-data.
For each table, surround theINSERTstatements with/*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */;and/*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name ENABLE KEYS */;statements. This makes loading the dump file faster because the indexes are created after all rows are inserted. This option is effective only for nonunique indexes ofMyISAMtables.
If the--commentsoption is given,mysqldumpproduces a comment at the end of the dump of the following form:
-- Dump completed on DATE
However, the date causes dump files taken at different times to appear to be different, even if the data are otherwise identical.--dump-dateand--skip-dump-datecontrol whether the date is added to the comment. The default is--dump-date(include the date in the comment).--skip-dump-datesuppresses date printing. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.52.
Use multiple-rowINSERTsyntax that include severalVALUESlists. This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when the file is reloaded.
These options are used with the--taboption and have the same meaning as the correspondingFIELDSclauses forLOAD DATA INFILE. SeeSection 12.2.6, lqLOAD DATA INFILE Syntaxrq.
Deprecated. Use--lock-all-tablesinstead.--first-slaveis removed in MySQL 5.5.
Flush the MySQL server log files before starting the dump. This option requires theRELOADprivilege. If you use this option in combination with the--all-databasesoption, the logs are flushedfor each database dumped. The exception is when using--lock-all-tablesor--master-data: In this case, the logs are flushed only once, corresponding to the moment that all tables are locked. If you want your dump and the log flush to happen at exactly the same moment, you should use--flush-logstogether with either--lock-all-tablesor--master-data.
Send aFLUSH PRIVILEGESstatement to the server after dumping themysqldatabase. This option should be used any time the dump contains themysqldatabase and any other database that depends on the data in themysqldatabase for proper restoration. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.26.
Continue even if an SQL error occurs during a table dump.
One use for this option is to causemysqldumpto continue executing even when it encounters a view that has become invalid because the definition refers to a table that has been dropped. Without--force,mysqldumpexits with an error message. With--force,mysqldumpprints the error message, but it also writes an SQL comment containing the view definition to the dump output and continues executing.
- *--host=host_name,-h host_name
Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host. The default host islocalhost.
Dump binary columns using hexadecimal notation (for example,'abc'becomes0x616263). The affected data types areBINARY,VARBINARY, and theBLOBtypes. As of MySQL 5.0.13,BITcolumns are affected as well.
Do not dump the given table, which must be specified using both the database and table names. To ignore multiple tables, use this option multiple times. This option also can be used to ignore views.
WriteINSERT IGNOREstatements rather thanINSERTstatements.
This option is used with the--taboption and has the same meaning as the correspondingLINESclause forLOAD DATA INFILE. SeeSection 12.2.6, lqLOAD DATA INFILE Syntaxrq.
Lock all tables across all databases. This is achieved by acquiring a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. This option automatically turns off--single-transactionand--lock-tables.
For each dumped database, lock all tables to be dumped before dumping them. The tables are locked withREAD LOCALto permit concurrent inserts in the case ofMyISAMtables. For transactional tables such asInnoDBandBDB,--single-transactionis a much better option than--lock-tablesbecause it does not need to lock the tables at all.
Because--lock-tableslocks tables for each database separately, this option does not guarantee that the tables in the dump file are logically consistent between databases. Tables in different databases may be dumped in completely different states.
Log warnings and errors by appending them to the named file. The default is to do no logging. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.42.
Use this option to dump a master replication server to produce a dump file that can be used to set up another server as a slave of the master. It causes the dump output to include aCHANGE MASTER TOstatement that indicates the binary log coordinates (file name and position) of the dumped server. These are the master server coordinates from which the slave should start replicating after you load the dump file into the slave.
If the option value is 2, theCHANGE MASTER TOstatement is written as an SQL comment, and thus is informative only; it has no effect when the dump file is reloaded. If the option value is 1, the statement is not written as a comment and takes effect when the dump file is reloaded. If no option value is specified, the default value is 1.
This option requires theRELOADprivilege and the binary log must be enabled.
The--master-dataoption automatically turns off--lock-tables. It also turns on--lock-all-tables, unless--single-transactionalso is specified, in which case, a global read lock is acquired only for a short time at the beginning of the dump (see the description for--single-transaction). In all cases, any action on logs happens at the exact moment of the dump.
It is also possible to set up a slave by dumping an existing slave of the master. To do this, use the following procedure on the existing slave:
- 1.Stop the slave's SQL thread and get its current status:
mysql> STOP SLAVE SQL_THREAD;mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS;
- 2.From the output of theSHOW SLAVE STATUSstatement, the binary log coordinates of the master server from which the new slave should start replicating are the values of theRelay_Master_Log_FileandExec_Master_Log_Posfields. Denote those values asfile_nameandfile_pos.
- 3.Dump the slave server:
shell> mysqldump --master-data=2 --all-databases > dumpfile
Using--master-data=2works only if binary logging has been enabled on the slave. Otherwise,mysqldumpfails with the errorBinlogging on server not active. In this case you must handle any locking issues in another manner, using one or more of--add-locks,--lock-tables,--lock-all-tables, or--single-transaction, as required by your application and environment.
- 4.Restart the slave:
mysql> START SLAVE;
- 5.On the new slave, load the dump file:
shell> mysql < dumpfile
- 6.On the new slave, set the replication coordinates to those of the master server obtained earlier:
mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO -> MASTER_LOG_FILE = 'file_name', MASTER_LOG_POS = file_pos;
TheCHANGE MASTER TOstatement might also need other parameters, such asMASTER_HOSTto point the slave to the correct master server host. Add any such parameters as necessary.
Enclose theINSERTstatements for each dumped table withinSET autocommit = 0andCOMMITstatements.
This option suppresses theCREATE DATABASEstatements that are otherwise included in the output if the--databasesor--all-databasesoption is given.
Do not writeCREATE TABLEstatements that re-create each dumped table.
Do not write any table row information (that is, do not dump table contents). This is useful if you want to dump only theCREATE TABLEstatement for the table (for example, to create an empty copy of the table by loading the dump file).
This has the same effect as--skip-set-charset.
This option is shorthand. It is the same as specifying--add-drop-table--add-locks--create-options--disable-keys--extended-insert--lock-tables--quick--set-charset. It should give you a fast dump operation and produce a dump file that can be reloaded into a MySQL server quickly.
The --opt option is enabled by default. Use --skip-opt to disable it.See the discussion at the beginning of this section for information about selectively enabling or disabling a subset of the options affected by--opt.
Dump each table's rows sorted by its primary key, or by its first unique index, if such an index exists. This is useful when dumping aMyISAMtable to be loaded into anInnoDBtable, but will make the dump operation take considerably longer.
The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), youcannothave a space between the option and the password. If you omit thepasswordvalue following the--passwordor-poption on the command line,mysqldumpprompts for one.
Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. SeeSection 188.8.131.52, lqEnd-User Guidelines for Password Securityrq. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.
On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.
- *--port=port_num,-P port_num
The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.
The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, seeSection 4.2.2, lqConnecting to the MySQL Serverrq.
This option is useful for dumping large tables. It forcesmysqldumpto retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire row set and buffering it in memory before writing it out.
Quote identifiers (such as database, table, and column names) withinlq`rqcharacters. If theANSI_QUOTESSQL mode is enabled, identifiers are quoted withinlq"rqcharacters. This option is enabled by default. It can be disabled with--skip-quote-names, but this option should be given after any option such as--compatiblethat may enable--quote-names.
- *--result-file=file_name,-r file_name
Direct output to a given file. This option should be used on Windows to prevent newlinelq\nrqcharacters from being converted tolq\r\nrqcarriage return/newline sequences. The result file is created and its previous contents overwritten, even if an error occurs while generating the dump.
Included stored routines (procedures and functions) for the dumped databases in the output. Use of this option requires theSELECTprivilege for themysql.proctable. The output generated by using--routinescontainsCREATE PROCEDUREandCREATE FUNCTIONstatements to re-create the routines. However, these statements do not include attributes such as the routine creation and modification timestamps. This means that when the routines are reloaded, they will be created with the timestamps equal to the reload time.
If you require routines to be re-created with their original timestamp attributes, do not use--routines. Instead, dump and reload the contents of themysql.proctable directly, using a MySQL account that has appropriate privileges for themysqldatabase.
This option was added in MySQL 5.0.13. Before that, stored routines are not dumped. RoutineDEFINERvalues are not dumped until MySQL 5.0.20. This means that before 5.0.20, when routines are reloaded, they will be created with the definer set to the reloading user. If you require routines to be re-created with their original definer, dump and load the contents of themysql.proctable directly as described earlier.
AddSET NAMES default_character_setto the output. This option is enabled by default. To suppress theSET NAMESstatement, use--skip-set-charset.
This option sends aSTART TRANSACTIONSQL statement to the server before dumping data. It is useful only with transactional tables such asInnoDBandBDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of the database at the time whenBEGINwas issued without blocking any applications.
When using this option, you should keep in mind that onlyInnoDBtables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, anyMyISAMorMEMORYtables dumped while using this option may still change state.
While a--single-transactiondump is in process, to ensure a valid dump file (correct table contents and binary log coordinates), no other connection should use the following statements:ALTER TABLE,CREATE TABLE,DROP TABLE,RENAME TABLE,TRUNCATE TABLE. A consistent read is not isolated from those statements, so use of them on a table to be dumped can cause theSELECTthat is performed bymysqldumpto retrieve the table contents to obtain incorrect contents or fail.
The--single-transactionoption and the--lock-tablesoption are mutually exclusive becauseLOCK TABLEScauses any pending transactions to be committed implicitly.
This option is not supported for MySQL Cluster tables; the results cannot be guaranteed to be consistent due to the fact that theNDBCLUSTERstorage engine supports only theREAD_COMMITTEDtransaction isolation level. You should always useNDBbackup and restore instead.
To dump large tables, you should combine the--single-transactionoption with--quick.
See the description for the--commentsoption.
See the description for the--optoption.
- *--socket=path,-S path
For connections tolocalhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.
Options that begin with--sslspecify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. SeeSection 184.108.40.206, lqSSL Command Optionsrq.
- *--tab=path,-T path
Produce tab-separated text-format data files. For each dumped table,mysqldumpcreates atbl_name.sqlfile that contains theCREATE TABLEstatement that creates the table, and the server writes atbl_name.txtfile that contains its data. The option value is the directory in which to write the files.
By default, the.txtdata files are formatted using tab characters between column values and a newline at the end of each line. The format can be specified explicitly using the--fields-xxxand--lines-terminated-byoptions.
This option should be used only whenmysqldumpis run on the same machine as themysqldserver. You must have theFILEprivilege, and the server must have permission to write files in the directory that you specify.
Column values are dumped using thebinarycharacter set and the--default-character-setoption is ignored. In effect, there is no character set conversion. If a table contains columns in several character sets, the output data file will as well and you may not be able to reload the file correctly.
Override the--databasesor-Boption.mysqldumpregards all name arguments following the option as table names.
Include triggers for each dumped table in the output. This option is enabled by default; disable it with--skip-triggers. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.11. Before that, triggers are not dumped.
This option enablesTIMESTAMPcolumns to be dumped and reloaded between servers in different time zones.mysqldumpsets its connection time zone to UTC and addsSET TIME_ZONE='+00:00'to the dump file. Without this option,TIMESTAMPcolumns are dumped and reloaded in the time zones local to the source and destination servers, which can cause the values to change if the servers are in different time zones.--tz-utcalso protects against changes due to daylight saving time.--tz-utcis enabled by default. To disable it, use--skip-tz-utc. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.15.
- *--user=user_name,-u user_name
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
Display version information and exit.
- *--where='where_condition',-w 'where_condition'
Dump only rows selected by the givenWHEREcondition. Quotes around the condition are mandatory if it contains spaces or other characters that are special to your command interpreter.
Write dump output as well-formed XML.
NULL, 'NULL', and Empty Values: For a column namedcolumn_name, theNULLvalue, an empty string, and the string value'NULL'are distinguished from one another in the output generated by this option as follows.
|NULL (unknown value)||<field name="column_name" xsi:nil="true" />|
|'' (empty string)||<field name="column_name"></field>|
|'NULL' (string value)||<field name="column_name">NULL</field>|
Beginning with MySQL 5.0.26, the output from themysqlclient when run using the--xmloption also follows the preceding rules. (Seethe section called lqMYSQL OPTIONSrq.)
Beginning with MySQL 5.0.40, XML output frommysqldumpincludes the XML namespace, as shown here:
shell> mysqldump --xml -u root world City<?xml version="1.0"?><mysqldump xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"><database name="world"><table_structure name="City"><field Field="ID" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="PRI" Extra="auto_increment" /><field Field="Name" Type="char(35)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" /><field Field="CountryCode" Type="char(3)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" /><field Field="District" Type="char(20)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" /><field Field="Population" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="0" Extra="" /><key Table="City" Non_unique="0" Key_name="PRIMARY" Seq_in_index="1" Column_name="ID"Collation="A" Cardinality="4079" Null="" Index_type="BTREE" Comment="" /><options Name="City" Engine="MyISAM" Version="10" Row_format="Fixed" Rows="4079"Avg_row_length="67" Data_length="273293" Max_data_length="18858823439613951"Index_length="43008" Data_free="0" Auto_increment="4080"Create_time="2007-03-31 01:47:01" Update_time="2007-03-31 01:47:02"Collation="latin1_swedish_ci" Create_options="" Comment="" /></table_structure><table_data name="City"><row><field name="ID">1</field><field name="Name">Kabul</field><field name="CountryCode">AFG</field><field name="District">Kabol</field><field name="Population">1780000</field></row>...<row><field name="ID">4079</field><field name="Name">Rafah</field><field name="CountryCode">PSE</field><field name="District">Rafah</field><field name="Population">92020</field></row></table_data></database></mysqldump>
You can also set the following variables by using--var_name=valuesyntax:
The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The maximum is 1GB.
The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. When creating multiple-rowINSERTstatements (as with the--extended-insertor--optoption),mysqldumpcreates rows up tonet_buffer_lengthlength. If you increase this variable, you should also ensure that thenet_buffer_lengthvariable in the MySQL server is at least this large.
It is also possible to set variables by using--var_name=value. The--set-variableformat is deprecated.
A common use ofmysqldumpis for making a backup of an entire database:
shell> mysqldump db_name > backup-file.sql
You can load the dump file back into the server like this:
shell> mysql db_name < backup-file.sql
Or like this:
shell> mysql -e "source /path-to-backup/backup-file.sql" db_name
mysqldumpis also very useful for populating databases by copying data from one MySQL server to another:
shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql --host=remote_host -C db_name
It is possible to dump several databases with one command:
shell> mysqldump --databases db_name1 [db_name2 ...] > my_databases.sql
To dump all databases, use the--all-databasesoption:
shell> mysqldump --all-databases > all_databases.sql
ForInnoDBtables,mysqldumpprovides a way of making an online backup:
shell> mysqldump --all-databases --single-transaction > all_databases.sql
This backup acquires a global read lock on all tables (usingFLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK) at the beginning of the dump. As soon as this lock has been acquired, the binary log coordinates are read and the lock is released. If long updating statements are running when theFLUSHstatement is issued, the MySQL server may get stalled until those statements finish. After that, the dump becomes lock free and does not disturb reads and writes on the tables. If the update statements that the MySQL server receives are short (in terms of execution time), the initial lock period should not be noticeable, even with many updates.
For point-in-time recovery (also known aslqroll-forward,rqwhen you need to restore an old backup and replay the changes that happened since that backup), it is often useful to rotate the binary log (seeSection 5.2.3, lqThe Binary Logrq) or at least know the binary log coordinates to which the dump corresponds:
shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql
shell> mysqldump --all-databases --flush-logs --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql
The--master-dataand--single-transactionoptions can be used simultaneously, which provides a convenient way to make an online backup suitable for use prior to point-in-time recovery if tables are stored using theInnoDBstorage engine.
For more information on making backups, seeSection 6.2, lqDatabase Backup Methodsrq, andSection 6.3, lqExample Backup and Recovery Strategyrq.
If you encounter problems backing up views, please read the section that covers restrictions on views which describes a workaround for backing up views when this fails due to insufficient privileges. SeeSection E.4, lqRestrictions on Viewsrq.
Copyright © 1997, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.
This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
SEE ALSOFor more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual,which may already be installed locally and which is also availableonline at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.
AUTHOROracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).
- SEE ALSO
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