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MAN page from Fedora 30 perl-Unicode-Normalize-1.25-397.module_2570+32b47dc0.x86_64.rpm

Normalize

Section: User Contributed Perl Documentation (3)
Updated: 2015-12-16
Index 

NAME

Unicode::Normalize - Unicode Normalization Forms 

SYNOPSIS

(1) using function names exported by default:

  use Unicode::Normalize;  $NFD_string  = NFD($string);  # Normalization Form D  $NFC_string  = NFC($string);  # Normalization Form C  $NFKD_string = NFKD($string); # Normalization Form KD  $NFKC_string = NFKC($string); # Normalization Form KC

(2) using function names exported on request:

  use Unicode::Normalize 'normalize';  $NFD_string  = normalize('D',  $string);  # Normalization Form D  $NFC_string  = normalize('C',  $string);  # Normalization Form C  $NFKD_string = normalize('KD', $string);  # Normalization Form KD  $NFKC_string = normalize('KC', $string);  # Normalization Form KC
 

DESCRIPTION

Parameters:

$string is used as a string under character semantics (see perlunicode).

$code_point should be an unsigned integer representing a Unicode code point.

Note: Between XSUB and pure Perl, there is an incompatibilityabout the interpretation of $code_point as a decimal number.XSUB converts $code_point to an unsigned integer, but pure Perl does not.Do not use a floating point nor a negative sign in $code_point. 

Normalization Forms

$NFD_string = NFD($string)
It returns the Normalization Form D (formed by canonical decomposition).
$NFC_string = NFC($string)
It returns the Normalization Form C (formed by canonical decompositionfollowed by canonical composition).
$NFKD_string = NFKD($string)
It returns the Normalization Form KD (formed by compatibility decomposition).
$NFKC_string = NFKC($string)
It returns the Normalization Form KC (formed by compatibility decompositionfollowed by canonical composition).
$FCD_string = FCD($string)
If the given string is in FCD (``Fast C or D'' form; cf. UTN #5),it returns the string without modification; otherwise it returns an FCD string.

Note: FCD is not always unique, then plural forms may be equivalenteach other. "FCD()" will return one of these equivalent forms.

$FCC_string = FCC($string)
It returns the FCC form (``Fast C Contiguous''; cf. UTN #5).

Note: FCC is unique, as well as four normalization forms (NF*).

$normalized_string = normalize($form_name, $string)
It returns the normalization form of $form_name.

As $form_name, one of the following names must be given.

  'C'  or 'NFC'  for Normalization Form C  (UAX #15)  'D'  or 'NFD'  for Normalization Form D  (UAX #15)  'KC' or 'NFKC' for Normalization Form KC (UAX #15)  'KD' or 'NFKD' for Normalization Form KD (UAX #15)  'FCD'          for "Fast C or D" Form  (UTN #5)  'FCC'          for "Fast C Contiguous" (UTN #5)
 

Decomposition and Composition

$decomposed_string = decompose($string [, $useCompatMapping])
It returns the concatenation of the decomposition of each characterin the string.

If the second parameter (a boolean) is omitted or false,the decomposition is canonical decomposition;if the second parameter (a boolean) is true,the decomposition is compatibility decomposition.

The string returned is not always in NFD/NFKD. Reordering may be required.

    $NFD_string  = reorder(decompose($string));       # eq. to NFD()    $NFKD_string = reorder(decompose($string, TRUE)); # eq. to NFKD()
$reordered_string = reorder($string)
It returns the result of reordering the combining charactersaccording to Canonical Ordering Behavior.

For example, when you have a list of NFD/NFKD strings,you can get the concatenated NFD/NFKD string from them, by saying

    $concat_NFD  = reorder(join '', @NFD_strings);    $concat_NFKD = reorder(join '', @NFKD_strings);
$composed_string = compose($string)
It returns the result of canonical compositionwithout applying any decomposition.

For example, when you have a NFD/NFKD string,you can get its NFC/NFKC string, by saying

    $NFC_string  = compose($NFD_string);    $NFKC_string = compose($NFKD_string);
($processed, $unprocessed) = splitOnLastStarter($normalized)
It returns two strings: the first one, $processed, is a partbefore the last starter, and the second one, $unprocessed isanother part after the first part. A starter is a character havinga combining class of zero (see UAX #15).

Note that $processed may be empty (when $normalized contains nostarter or starts with the last starter), and then $unprocessedshould be equal to the entire $normalized.

When you have a $normalized string and an $unnormalized stringfollowing it, a simple concatenation is wrong:

    $concat = $normalized . normalize($form, $unnormalized); # wrong!

Instead of it, do like this:

    ($processed, $unprocessed) = splitOnLastStarter($normalized);     $concat = $processed . normalize($form, $unprocessed.$unnormalized);

"splitOnLastStarter()" should be called with a pre-normalized parameter$normalized, that is in the same form as $form you want.

If you have an array of @string that should be concatenated and thennormalized, you can do like this:

    my $result = "";    my $unproc = "";    foreach my $str (@string) {        $unproc .= $str;        my $n = normalize($form, $unproc);        my($p, $u) = splitOnLastStarter($n);        $result .= $p;        $unproc  = $u;    }    $result .= $unproc;    # instead of normalize($form, join('', @string))
$processed = normalize_partial($form, $unprocessed)
A wrapper for the combination of "normalize()" and "splitOnLastStarter()".Note that $unprocessed will be modified as a side-effect.

If you have an array of @string that should be concatenated and thennormalized, you can do like this:

    my $result = "";    my $unproc = "";    foreach my $str (@string) {        $unproc .= $str;        $result .= normalize_partial($form, $unproc);    }    $result .= $unproc;    # instead of normalize($form, join('', @string))
$processed = NFD_partial($unprocessed)
It does like "normalize_partial('NFD', $unprocessed)".Note that $unprocessed will be modified as a side-effect.
$processed = NFC_partial($unprocessed)
It does like "normalize_partial('NFC', $unprocessed)".Note that $unprocessed will be modified as a side-effect.
$processed = NFKD_partial($unprocessed)
It does like "normalize_partial('NFKD', $unprocessed)".Note that $unprocessed will be modified as a side-effect.
$processed = NFKC_partial($unprocessed)
It does like "normalize_partial('NFKC', $unprocessed)".Note that $unprocessed will be modified as a side-effect.
 

Quick Check

(see Annex 8, UAX #15; and DerivedNormalizationProps.txt)

The following functions check whether the string is in that normalization form.

The result returned will be one of the following:

    YES     The string is in that normalization form.    NO      The string is not in that normalization form.    MAYBE   Dubious. Maybe yes, maybe no.
$result = checkNFD($string)
It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO".
$result = checkNFC($string)
It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO";"undef" if "MAYBE".
$result = checkNFKD($string)
It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO".
$result = checkNFKC($string)
It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO";"undef" if "MAYBE".
$result = checkFCD($string)
It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO".
$result = checkFCC($string)
It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO";"undef" if "MAYBE".

Note: If a string is not in FCD, it must not be in FCC.So "checkFCC($not_FCD_string)" should return "NO".

$result = check($form_name, $string)
It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO";"undef" if "MAYBE".

As $form_name, one of the following names must be given.

  'C'  or 'NFC'  for Normalization Form C  (UAX #15)  'D'  or 'NFD'  for Normalization Form D  (UAX #15)  'KC' or 'NFKC' for Normalization Form KC (UAX #15)  'KD' or 'NFKD' for Normalization Form KD (UAX #15)  'FCD'          for "Fast C or D" Form  (UTN #5)  'FCC'          for "Fast C Contiguous" (UTN #5)

Note

In the cases of NFD, NFKD, and FCD, the answer must beeither "YES" or "NO". The answer "MAYBE" may be returnedin the cases of NFC, NFKC, and FCC.

A "MAYBE" string should contain at least one combining characteror the like. For example, "COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT" hasthe MAYBE_NFC/MAYBE_NFKC property.

Both "checkNFC("A\N{COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT}")"and "checkNFC("B\N{COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT}")" will return "MAYBE"."A\N{COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT}" is not in NFC(its NFC is "\N{LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE}"),while "B\N{COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT}" is in NFC.

If you want to check exactly, compare the string with its NFC/NFKC/FCC.

    if ($string eq NFC($string)) {        # $string is exactly normalized in NFC;    } else {        # $string is not normalized in NFC;    }    if ($string eq NFKC($string)) {        # $string is exactly normalized in NFKC;    } else {        # $string is not normalized in NFKC;    }
 

Character Data

These functions are interface of character data used internally.If you want only to get Unicode normalization forms, you don't needcall them yourself.
$canonical_decomposition = getCanon($code_point)
If the character is canonically decomposable (including Hangul Syllables),it returns the (full) canonical decomposition as a string.Otherwise it returns "undef".

Note: According to the Unicode standard, the canonical decompositionof the character that is not canonically decomposable is same asthe character itself.

$compatibility_decomposition = getCompat($code_point)
If the character is compatibility decomposable (including Hangul Syllables),it returns the (full) compatibility decomposition as a string.Otherwise it returns "undef".

Note: According to the Unicode standard, the compatibility decompositionof the character that is not compatibility decomposable is same asthe character itself.

$code_point_composite = getComposite($code_point_here, $code_point_next)
If two characters here and next (as code points) are composable(including Hangul Jamo/Syllables and Composition Exclusions),it returns the code point of the composite.

If they are not composable, it returns "undef".

$combining_class = getCombinClass($code_point)
It returns the combining class (as an integer) of the character.
$may_be_composed_with_prev_char = isComp2nd($code_point)
It returns a boolean whether the character of the specified codepointmay be composed with the previous one in a certain composition(including Hangul Compositions, but excludingComposition Exclusions and Non-Starter Decompositions).
$is_exclusion = isExclusion($code_point)
It returns a boolean whether the code point is a composition exclusion.
$is_singleton = isSingleton($code_point)
It returns a boolean whether the code point is a singleton
$is_non_starter_decomposition = isNonStDecomp($code_point)
It returns a boolean whether the code point has Non-Starter Decomposition.
$is_Full_Composition_Exclusion = isComp_Ex($code_point)
It returns a boolean of the derived property Comp_Ex(Full_Composition_Exclusion). This property is generated fromComposition Exclusions + Singletons + Non-Starter Decompositions.
$NFD_is_NO = isNFD_NO($code_point)
It returns a boolean of the derived property NFD_NO(NFD_Quick_Check=No).
$NFC_is_NO = isNFC_NO($code_point)
It returns a boolean of the derived property NFC_NO(NFC_Quick_Check=No).
$NFC_is_MAYBE = isNFC_MAYBE($code_point)
It returns a boolean of the derived property NFC_MAYBE(NFC_Quick_Check=Maybe).
$NFKD_is_NO = isNFKD_NO($code_point)
It returns a boolean of the derived property NFKD_NO(NFKD_Quick_Check=No).
$NFKC_is_NO = isNFKC_NO($code_point)
It returns a boolean of the derived property NFKC_NO(NFKC_Quick_Check=No).
$NFKC_is_MAYBE = isNFKC_MAYBE($code_point)
It returns a boolean of the derived property NFKC_MAYBE(NFKC_Quick_Check=Maybe).
 

EXPORT

"NFC", "NFD", "NFKC", "NFKD": by default.

"normalize" and other some functions: on request. 

CAVEATS

Perl's version vs. Unicode version
Since this module refers to perl core's Unicode database in the directory/lib/unicore (or formerly /lib/unicode), the Unicode version ofnormalization implemented by this module depends on what has beencompiled into your perl. The following table lists the default Unicodeversion that comes with various perl versions. (It is possible to changethe Unicode version in any perl version to be any earlier Unicode version,so one could cause Unicode 3.2 to be used in any perl version starting with5.8.0. See $Config{privlib}/unicore/README.perl.

    perl's version     implemented Unicode version       5.6.1              3.0.1       5.7.2              3.1.0       5.7.3              3.1.1 (normalization is same as 3.1.0)       5.8.0              3.2.0         5.8.1-5.8.3      4.0.0         5.8.4-5.8.6      4.0.1 (normalization is same as 4.0.0)         5.8.7-5.8.8      4.1.0       5.10.0             5.0.0        5.8.9, 5.10.1     5.1.0       5.12.x             5.2.0       5.14.x             6.0.0       5.16.x             6.1.0       5.18.x             6.2.0       5.20.x             6.3.0       5.22.x             7.0.0
Correction of decomposition mapping
In older Unicode versions, a small number of characters (all of which areCJK compatibility ideographs as far as they have been found) may havean erroneous decomposition mapping (see NormalizationCorrections.txt).Anyhow, this module will neither refer to NormalizationCorrections.txtnor provide any specific version of normalization. Therefore this modulerunning on an older perl with an older Unicode database may usethe erroneous decomposition mapping blindly conforming to the Unicode database.
Revised definition of canonical composition
In Unicode 4.1.0, the definition D2 of canonical composition (whichaffects NFC and NFKC) has been changed (see Public Review Issue #29and recent UAX #15). This module has used the newer definitionsince the version 0.07 (Oct 31, 2001).This module will not support the normalization according to the olderdefinition, even if the Unicode version implemented by perl islower than 4.1.0.
 

AUTHOR

SADAHIRO Tomoyuki <SADAHIROAATTcpan.org>

Currently maintained by <perl5-portersAATTperl.org>

Copyright(C) 2001-2012, SADAHIRO Tomoyuki. Japan. All rights reserved. 

LICENSE

This module is free software; you can redistribute itand/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. 

SEE ALSO

http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/
Unicode Normalization Forms - UAX #15
http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/CompositionExclusions.txt
Composition Exclusion Table
http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/DerivedNormalizationProps.txt
Derived Normalization Properties
http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/NormalizationCorrections.txt
Normalization Corrections
http://www.unicode.org/review/pr-29.html
Public Review Issue #29: Normalization Issue
http://www.unicode.org/notes/tn5/
Canonical Equivalence in Applications - UTN #5


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Normalization Forms
Decomposition and Composition
Quick Check
Character Data
EXPORT
CAVEATS
AUTHOR
LICENSE
SEE ALSO

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