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YUM REPOSITORY

 
 

Compress::Zlib

Section: User Contributed Perl Documentation (3)
Updated: 2007-06-18
Index 

NAME

Compress::Zlib - Interface to zlib compression library 

SYNOPSIS

    use Compress::Zlib ;

    ($d, $status) = deflateInit( [OPT] ) ;    $status = $d->deflate($input, $output) ;    $status = $d->flush($output [, $flush_type]) ;    $d->deflateParams(OPTS) ;    $d->deflateTune(OPTS) ;    $d->dict_adler() ;    $d->crc32() ;    $d->adler32() ;    $d->total_in() ;    $d->total_out() ;    $d->msg() ;    $d->get_Strategy();    $d->get_Level();    $d->get_BufSize();

    ($i, $status) = inflateInit( [OPT] ) ;    $status = $i->inflate($input, $output [, $eof]) ;    $status = $i->inflateSync($input) ;    $i->dict_adler() ;    $d->crc32() ;    $d->adler32() ;    $i->total_in() ;    $i->total_out() ;    $i->msg() ;    $d->get_BufSize();

    $dest = compress($source) ;    $dest = uncompress($source) ;

    $gz = gzopen($filename or filehandle, $mode) ;    $bytesread = $gz->gzread($buffer [,$size]) ;    $bytesread = $gz->gzreadline($line) ;    $byteswritten = $gz->gzwrite($buffer) ;    $status = $gz->gzflush($flush) ;    $offset = $gz->gztell() ;    $status = $gz->gzseek($offset, $whence) ;    $status = $gz->gzclose() ;    $status = $gz->gzeof() ;    $status = $gz->gzsetparams($level, $strategy) ;    $errstring = $gz->gzerror() ;     $gzerrno

    $dest = Compress::Zlib::memGzip($buffer) ;    $dest = Compress::Zlib::memGunzip($buffer) ;

    $crc = adler32($buffer [,$crc]) ;    $crc = crc32($buffer [,$crc]) ;

    $crc = adler32_combine($crc1, $crc2, $len2)l    $crc = crc32_combine($adler1, $adler2, $len2)

    ZLIB_VERSION    ZLIB_VERNUM
 

DESCRIPTION

The Compress::Zlib module provides a Perl interface to the zlibcompression library (see ``AUTHOR'' for details about where to getzlib).

The "Compress::Zlib" module can be split into two general areas offunctionality, namely a simple read/write interface to gzip filesand a low-level in-memory compression/decompression interface.

Each of these areas will be discussed in the following sections. 

Notes for users of Compress::Zlib version 1

The main change in "Compress::Zlib" version 2.x is that it does not nowinterface directly to the zlib library. Instead it uses the"IO::Compress::Gzip" and "IO::Uncompress::Gunzip" modules forreading/writing gzip files, and the "Compress::Raw::Zlib" module for somelow-level zlib access.

The interface provided by version 2 should be 100% backward compatible withversion 1. If you find a difference in the expected behaviour pleasecontact the author (See ``AUTHOR''). See ``GZIP INTERFACE''

If you are writing new code, your first port of call should be to use onethese new modules. 

GZIP INTERFACE

A number of functions are supplied in zlib for reading and writinggzip files that conform to RFC 1952. This module provides an interfaceto most of them.

If you have previously used "Compress::Zlib" 1.x, the followingenhancements/changes have been made to the "gzopen" interface:

1
If you want to to open either STDIN or STDOUT with "gzopen", you can nowoptionally use the special filename ""-"" as a synonym for "\*STDIN" and"\*STDOUT".
2
In "Compress::Zlib" version 1.x, "gzopen" used the zlib library to openthe underlying file. This made things especially tricky when a Perlfilehandle was passed to "gzopen". Behind the scenes the numeric C filedescriptor had to be extracted from the Perl filehandle and this passed tothe zlib library.

Apart from being non-portable to some operating systems, this made itdifficult to use "gzopen" in situations where you wanted to extract/createa gzip data stream that is embedded in a larger file, without having toresort to opening and closing the file multiple times.

It also made it impossible to pass a perl filehandle that wasn't associatedwith a real filesystem file, like, say, an "IO::String".

In "Compress::Zlib" version 2.x, the "gzopen" interface has beencompletely rewritten to use the IO::Compress::Gzipfor writing gzip files and IO::Uncompress::Gunzipfor reading gzip files. None of the limitations mentioned above apply.

3
Addition of "gzseek" to provide a restricted "seek" interface.
4.
Added "gztell".

A more complete and flexible interface for reading/writing gzipfiles/buffers is included with the module "IO-Compress-Zlib". SeeIO::Compress::Gzip andIO::Uncompress::Gunzip for more details.

$gz = gzopen($filename, $mode)
$gz = gzopen($filehandle, $mode)
This function opens either the gzip file $filename for reading orwriting or attaches to the opened filehandle, $filehandle. It returns an object on success and "undef" on failure.

When writing a gzip file this interface will always create the smallestpossible gzip header (exactly 10 bytes). If you want greater control overwhat gets stored in the gzip header (like the original filename or acomment) use IO::Compress::Gzip instead. Similarly ifyou want to read the contents of the gzip header useIO::Uncompress::Gunzip.

The second parameter, $mode, is used to specify whether the file isopened for reading or writing and to optionally specify a compressionlevel and compression strategy when writing. The format of the $modeparameter is similar to the mode parameter to the 'C' function "fopen",so ``rb'' is used to open for reading, ``wb'' for writing and ``ab'' forappending (writing at the end of the file).

To specify a compression level when writing, append a digit between 0and 9 to the mode string --- 0 means no compression and 9 means maximumcompression.If no compression level is specified Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION is used.

To specify the compression strategy when writing, append 'f' for filtereddata, 'h' for Huffman only compression, or 'R' for run-length encoding.If no strategy is specified Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY is used.

So, for example, ``wb9'' means open for writing with the maximum compressionusing the default strategy and ``wb4R'' means open for writing with compressionlevel 4 and run-length encoding.

Refer to the zlib documentation for the exact format of the $modeparameter.

$bytesread = $gz->gzread($buffer [, $size]) ;
Reads $size bytes from the compressed file into $buffer. If$size is not specified, it will default to 4096. If the scalar$buffer is not large enough, it will be extended automatically.

Returns the number of bytes actually read. On EOF it returns 0 and inthe case of an error, -1.

$bytesread = $gz->gzreadline($line) ;
Reads the next line from the compressed file into $line.

Returns the number of bytes actually read. On EOF it returns 0 and inthe case of an error, -1.

It is legal to intermix calls to "gzread" and "gzreadline".

In addition, "gzreadline" fully supports the use of of the variable $/($INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR or $RS when "English" is in use) todetermine what constitutes an end of line. Both paragraph mode and fileslurp mode are supported.

$byteswritten = $gz->gzwrite($buffer) ;
Writes the contents of $buffer to the compressed file. Returns thenumber of bytes actually written, or 0 on error.
$status = $gz->gzflush($flush_type) ;
Flushes all pending output into the compressed file.

This method takes an optional parameter, $flush_type, that controlshow the flushing will be carried out. By default the $flush_typeused is "Z_FINISH". Other valid values for $flush_type are"Z_NO_FLUSH", "Z_SYNC_FLUSH", "Z_FULL_FLUSH" and "Z_BLOCK". It isstrongly recommended that you only set the "flush_type" parameter ifyou fully understand the implications of what it does - overuse of "flush"can seriously degrade the level of compression achieved. See the "zlib"documentation for details.

Returns 1 on success, 0 on failure.

$offset = $gz->gztell() ;
Returns the uncompressed file offset.
$status = $gz->gzseek($offset, $whence) ;
Provides a sub-set of the "seek" functionality, with the restrictionthat it is only legal to seek forward in the compressed file.It is a fatal error to attempt to seek backward.

When opened for writing, empty parts of the file will have NULL (0x00)bytes written to them.

The $whence parameter should be one of SEEK_SET, SEEK_CUR or SEEK_END.

Returns 1 on success, 0 on failure.

$gz->gzclose
Closes the compressed file. Any pending data is flushed to the filebefore it is closed.

Returns 1 on success, 0 on failure.

$gz->gzsetparams($level, $strategy
Change settings for the deflate stream $gz.

The list of the valid options is shown below. Options not specifiedwill remain unchanged.

Note: This method is only available if you are running zlib 1.0.6 or better.

$level
Defines the compression level. Valid values are 0 through 9,"Z_NO_COMPRESSION", "Z_BEST_SPEED", "Z_BEST_COMPRESSION", and"Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION".
$strategy
Defines the strategy used to tune the compression. The valid values are"Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY", "Z_FILTERED" and "Z_HUFFMAN_ONLY".
$gz->gzerror
Returns the zlib error message or number for the last operationassociated with $gz. The return value will be the zlib errornumber when used in a numeric context and the zlib error messagewhen used in a string context. The zlib error number constants,shown below, are available for use.

    Z_OK    Z_STREAM_END    Z_ERRNO    Z_STREAM_ERROR    Z_DATA_ERROR    Z_MEM_ERROR    Z_BUF_ERROR
$gzerrno
The $gzerrno scalar holds the error code associated with the mostrecent gzip routine. Note that unlike "gzerror()", the error isnot associated with a particular file.

As with "gzerror()" it returns an error number in numeric context andan error message in string context. Unlike "gzerror()" though, theerror message will correspond to the zlib message when the error isassociated with zlib itself, or the UNIX error message when it isnot (i.e. zlib returned "Z_ERRORNO").

As there is an overlap between the error numbers used by zlib andUNIX, $gzerrno should only be used to check for the presence ofan error in numeric context. Use "gzerror()" to check for specificzlib errors. The gzcat example below shows how the variable canbe used safely.

 

Examples

Here is an example script which uses the interface. It implements agzcat function.

    use strict ;    use warnings ;

    use Compress::Zlib ;

    # use stdin if no files supplied    @ARGV = '-' unless @ARGV ;

    foreach my $file (@ARGV) {        my $buffer ;

        my $gz = gzopen($file, "rb")              or die "Cannot open $file: $gzerrno\n" ;

        print $buffer while $gz->gzread($buffer) > 0 ;

        die "Error reading from $file: $gzerrno" . ($gzerrno+0) . "\n"             if $gzerrno != Z_STREAM_END ;

        $gz->gzclose() ;    }

Below is a script which makes use of "gzreadline". It implements avery simple grep like script.

    use strict ;    use warnings ;

    use Compress::Zlib ;

    die "Usage: gzgrep pattern [file...]\n"        unless @ARGV >= 1;

    my $pattern = shift ;

    # use stdin if no files supplied    @ARGV = '-' unless @ARGV ;

    foreach my $file (@ARGV) {        my $gz = gzopen($file, "rb")              or die "Cannot open $file: $gzerrno\n" ;

        while ($gz->gzreadline($_) > 0) {            print if /$pattern/ ;        }

        die "Error reading from $file: $gzerrno\n"             if $gzerrno != Z_STREAM_END ;

        $gz->gzclose() ;    }

This script, gzstream, does the opposite of the gzcat scriptabove. It reads from standard input and writes a gzip data stream tostandard output.

    use strict ;    use warnings ;

    use Compress::Zlib ;

    binmode STDOUT;  # gzopen only sets it on the fd

    my $gz = gzopen(\*STDOUT, "wb")          or die "Cannot open stdout: $gzerrno\n" ;

    while (<>) {        $gz->gzwrite($_)           or die "error writing: $gzerrno\n" ;    }

    $gz->gzclose ;
 

Compress::Zlib::memGzip

This function is used to create an in-memory gzip file with the minimumpossible gzip header (exactly 10 bytes).

    $dest = Compress::Zlib::memGzip($buffer) ;

If successful, it returns the in-memory gzip file, otherwise it returnsundef.

The $buffer parameter can either be a scalar or a scalar reference.

See IO::Compress::Gzip for an alternative way tocarry out in-memory gzip compression. 

Compress::Zlib::memGunzip

This function is used to uncompress an in-memory gzip file.

    $dest = Compress::Zlib::memGunzip($buffer) ;

If successful, it returns the uncompressed gzip file, otherwise itreturns undef.

The $buffer parameter can either be a scalar or a scalar reference. Thecontents of the $buffer parameter are destroyed after calling this function.

See IO::Uncompress::Gunzip for an alternative wayto carry out in-memory gzip uncompression. 

COMPRESS/UNCOMPRESS

Two functions are provided to perform in-memory compression/uncompression ofRFC 1950 data streams. They are called "compress" and "uncompress".
$dest = compress($source [, $level] ) ;
Compresses $source. If successful it returns the compresseddata. Otherwise it returns undef.

The source buffer, $source, can either be a scalar or a scalarreference.

The $level parameter defines the compression level. Valid values are0 through 9, "Z_NO_COMPRESSION", "Z_BEST_SPEED","Z_BEST_COMPRESSION", and "Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION".If $level is not specified "Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION" will be used.

$dest = uncompress($source) ;
Uncompresses $source. If successful it returns the uncompresseddata. Otherwise it returns undef.

The source buffer can either be a scalar or a scalar reference.

Please note: the two functions defined above are not compatible withthe Unix commands of the same name.

See IO::Deflate and IO::Inflate included withthis distribution for an alternative interface for reading/writing RFC 1950files/buffers. 

Deflate Interface

This section defines an interface that allows in-memory compression usingthe deflate interface provided by zlib.

Here is a definition of the interface available: 

($d, $status) = deflateInit( [OPT] )

Initialises a deflation stream.

It combines the features of the zlib functions "deflateInit","deflateInit2" and "deflateSetDictionary".

If successful, it will return the initialised deflation stream, $dand $status of "Z_OK" in a list context. In scalar context itreturns the deflation stream, $d, only.

If not successful, the returned deflation stream ($d) will beundef and $status will hold the exact zlib error code.

The function optionally takes a number of named options specified as"-Name=>value" pairs. This allows individual options to betailored without having to specify them all in the parameter list.

For backward compatibility, it is also possible to pass the parametersas a reference to a hash containing the name=>value pairs.

The function takes one optional parameter, a reference to a hash. Thecontents of the hash allow the deflation interface to be tailored.

Here is a list of the valid options:

-Level
Defines the compression level. Valid values are 0 through 9,"Z_NO_COMPRESSION", "Z_BEST_SPEED", "Z_BEST_COMPRESSION", and"Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION".

The default is Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION.

-Method
Defines the compression method. The only valid value at present (andthe default) is Z_DEFLATED.
-WindowBits
To create an RFC 1950 data stream, set "WindowBits" to a positive number.

To create an RFC 1951 data stream, set "WindowBits" to "-MAX_WBITS".

For a full definition of the meaning and valid values for "WindowBits" referto the zlib documentation for deflateInit2.

Defaults to MAX_WBITS.

-MemLevel
For a definition of the meaning and valid values for "MemLevel"refer to the zlib documentation for deflateInit2.

Defaults to MAX_MEM_LEVEL.

-Strategy
Defines the strategy used to tune the compression. The valid values are"Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY", "Z_FILTERED" and "Z_HUFFMAN_ONLY".

The default is Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY.

-Dictionary
When a dictionary is specified Compress::Zlib will automaticallycall "deflateSetDictionary" directly after calling "deflateInit". TheAdler32 value for the dictionary can be obtained by calling the method "$d-"dict_adler()>.

The default is no dictionary.

-Bufsize
Sets the initial size for the deflation buffer. If the buffer has to bereallocated to increase the size, it will grow in increments of"Bufsize".

The default is 4096.

Here is an example of using the "deflateInit" optional parameter listto override the default buffer size and compression level. All otheroptions will take their default values.

    deflateInit( -Bufsize => 300,                  -Level => Z_BEST_SPEED  ) ;
 

($out, $status) = $d->deflate($buffer)

Deflates the contents of $buffer. The buffer can either be a scalaror a scalar reference. When finished, $buffer will becompletely processed (assuming there were no errors). If the deflationwas successful it returns the deflated output, $out, and a statusvalue, $status, of "Z_OK".

On error, $out will be undef and $status will contain thezlib error code.

In a scalar context "deflate" will return $out only.

As with the deflate function in zlib, it is not necessarily thecase that any output will be produced by this method. So don't rely onthe fact that $out is empty for an error test. 

($out, $status) = $d->flush([flush_type])

Typically used to finish the deflation. Any pending output will bereturned via $out.$status will have a value "Z_OK" if successful.

In a scalar context "flush" will return $out only.

Note that flushing can seriously degrade the compression ratio, so itshould only be used to terminate a decompression (using "Z_FINISH") orwhen you want to create a full flush point (using "Z_FULL_FLUSH").

By default the "flush_type" used is "Z_FINISH". Other valid valuesfor "flush_type" are "Z_NO_FLUSH", "Z_PARTIAL_FLUSH", "Z_SYNC_FLUSH"and "Z_FULL_FLUSH". It is strongly recommended that you only set the"flush_type" parameter if you fully understand the implications ofwhat it does. See the "zlib" documentation for details. 

$status = $d->deflateParams([OPT])

Change settings for the deflate stream $d.

The list of the valid options is shown below. Options not specifiedwill remain unchanged.

-Level
Defines the compression level. Valid values are 0 through 9,"Z_NO_COMPRESSION", "Z_BEST_SPEED", "Z_BEST_COMPRESSION", and"Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION".
-Strategy
Defines the strategy used to tune the compression. The valid values are"Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY", "Z_FILTERED" and "Z_HUFFMAN_ONLY".
 

$d->dict_adler()

Returns the adler32 value for the dictionary. 

$d->msg()

Returns the last error message generated by zlib. 

$d->total_in()

Returns the total number of bytes uncompressed bytes input to deflate. 

$d->total_out()

Returns the total number of compressed bytes output from deflate. 

Example

Here is a trivial example of using "deflate". It simply reads standardinput, deflates it and writes it to standard output.

    use strict ;    use warnings ;

    use Compress::Zlib ;

    binmode STDIN;    binmode STDOUT;    my $x = deflateInit()       or die "Cannot create a deflation stream\n" ;

    my ($output, $status) ;    while (<>)    {        ($output, $status) = $x->deflate($_) ;

        $status == Z_OK            or die "deflation failed\n" ;

        print $output ;    }

    ($output, $status) = $x->flush() ;

    $status == Z_OK        or die "deflation failed\n" ;

    print $output ;
 

Inflate Interface

This section defines the interface available that allows in-memoryuncompression using the deflate interface provided by zlib.

Here is a definition of the interface: 

($i, $status) = inflateInit()

Initialises an inflation stream.

In a list context it returns the inflation stream, $i, and thezlib status code in $status. In a scalar context it returns theinflation stream only.

If successful, $i will hold the inflation stream and $status willbe "Z_OK".

If not successful, $i will be undef and $status will hold thezlib error code.

The function optionally takes a number of named options specified as"-Name=>value" pairs. This allows individual options to betailored without having to specify them all in the parameter list.

For backward compatibility, it is also possible to pass the parametersas a reference to a hash containing the name=>value pairs.

The function takes one optional parameter, a reference to a hash. Thecontents of the hash allow the deflation interface to be tailored.

Here is a list of the valid options:

-WindowBits
To uncompress an RFC 1950 data stream, set "WindowBits" to a positive number.

To uncompress an RFC 1951 data stream, set "WindowBits" to "-MAX_WBITS".

For a full definition of the meaning and valid values for "WindowBits" referto the zlib documentation for inflateInit2.

Defaults to MAX_WBITS.

-Bufsize
Sets the initial size for the inflation buffer. If the buffer has to bereallocated to increase the size, it will grow in increments of"Bufsize".

Default is 4096.

-Dictionary
The default is no dictionary.

Here is an example of using the "inflateInit" optional parameter tooverride the default buffer size.

    inflateInit( -Bufsize => 300 ) ;
 

($out, $status) = $i->inflate($buffer)

Inflates the complete contents of $buffer. The buffer can either bea scalar or a scalar reference.

Returns "Z_OK" if successful and "Z_STREAM_END" if the end of thecompressed data has been successfully reached. If not successful, $out will be undef and $status will holdthe zlib error code.

The $buffer parameter is modified by "inflate". On completion itwill contain what remains of the input buffer after inflation. Thismeans that $buffer will be an empty string when the return status is"Z_OK". When the return status is "Z_STREAM_END" the $bufferparameter will contains what (if anything) was stored in the inputbuffer after the deflated data stream.

This feature is useful when processing a file format that encapsulatesa compressed data stream (e.g. gzip, zip). 

$status = $i->inflateSync($buffer)

Scans $buffer until it reaches either a full flush point or theend of the buffer.

If a full flush point is found, "Z_OK" is returned and $bufferwill be have all data up to the flush point removed. This can then bepassed to the "deflate" method.

Any other return code means that a flush point was not found. If moredata is available, "inflateSync" can be called repeatedly with morecompressed data until the flush point is found. 

$i->dict_adler()

Returns the adler32 value for the dictionary. 

$i->msg()

Returns the last error message generated by zlib. 

$i->total_in()

Returns the total number of bytes compressed bytes input to inflate. 

$i->total_out()

Returns the total number of uncompressed bytes output from inflate. 

Example

Here is an example of using "inflate".

    use strict ;    use warnings ;

    use Compress::Zlib ;

    my $x = inflateInit()       or die "Cannot create a inflation stream\n" ;

    my $input = '' ;    binmode STDIN;    binmode STDOUT;

    my ($output, $status) ;    while (read(STDIN, $input, 4096))    {        ($output, $status) = $x->inflate(\$input) ;

        print $output             if $status == Z_OK or $status == Z_STREAM_END ;

        last if $status != Z_OK ;    }

    die "inflation failed\n"        unless $status == Z_STREAM_END ;
 

CHECKSUM FUNCTIONS

Two functions are provided by zlib to calculate checksums. For thePerl interface, the order of the two parameters in both functions hasbeen reversed. This allows both running checksums and one offcalculations to be done.

    $crc = adler32($buffer [,$crc]) ;    $crc = crc32($buffer [,$crc]) ;

The buffer parameters can either be a scalar or a scalar reference.

If the $crc parameters is "undef", the crc value will be reset.

If you have built this module with zlib 1.2.3 or better, two moreCRC-related functions are available.

    $crc = adler32_combine($crc1, $crc2, $len2)l    $crc = crc32_combine($adler1, $adler2, $len2)

These functions allow checksums to be merged. 

CONSTANTS

All the zlib constants are automatically imported when you make useof Compress::Zlib. 

SEE ALSO

IO::Compress::Gzip, IO::Uncompress::Gunzip, IO::Compress::Deflate, IO::Uncompress::Inflate, IO::Compress::RawDeflate, IO::Uncompress::RawInflate, IO::Compress::Bzip2, IO::Uncompress::Bunzip2, IO::Compress::Lzop, IO::Uncompress::UnLzop, IO::Compress::Lzf, IO::Uncompress::UnLzf, IO::Uncompress::AnyInflate, IO::Uncompress::AnyUncompress

Compress::Zlib::FAQ

File::GlobMapper, Archive::Zip,Archive::Tar,IO::Zlib

For RFC 1950, 1951 and 1952 see http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1950.html,http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1951.html andhttp://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1952.html

The zlib compression library was written by Jean-loup Gaillygzip@prep.ai.mit.edu and Mark Adler madlerAATTalumni.caltech.edu.

The primary site for the zlib compression library ishttp://www.zlib.org.

The primary site for gzip is http://www.gzip.org. 

AUTHOR

This module was written by Paul Marquess, pmqsAATTcpan.org.  

MODIFICATION HISTORY

See the Changes file. 

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright (c) 1995-2007 Paul Marquess. All rights reserved.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/ormodify it under the same terms as Perl itself.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Notes for users of Compress::Zlib version 1
GZIP INTERFACE
Examples
Compress::Zlib::memGzip
Compress::Zlib::memGunzip
COMPRESS/UNCOMPRESS
Deflate Interface
($d, $status) = deflateInit( [OPT] )
($out, $status) = $d->deflate($buffer)
($out, $status) = $d->flush([flush_type])
$status = $d->deflateParams([OPT])
$d->dict_adler()
$d->msg()
$d->total_in()
$d->total_out()
Example
Inflate Interface
($i, $status) = inflateInit()
($out, $status) = $i->inflate($buffer)
$status = $i->inflateSync($buffer)
$i->dict_adler()
$i->msg()
$i->total_in()
$i->total_out()
Example
CHECKSUM FUNCTIONS
CONSTANTS
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
MODIFICATION HISTORY
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

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