Section: System Manager's Manual (8)
Updated: November 2004Index
- query and set CPU scheduling parameters
- [-0|-N] [-1|-F] [-2|-R] [-3|-B] [-4|-I] [-5|-D][-M policy][-a affinity] [-p prio][-n nice_level][-e command [arg ...]][-r][-v][-h][LIST OF PIDs]
can set all CPU scheduling parameters Linux is capable of or display information for given processes.Long-running, non-interactive tasks may benefit from SCHED_BATCH as timeslices are longer, less system-time is wasted by computing the next runnable process and the caches stay stable.Audio/video or other near-realtime applications may run with less skipping if set to SCHED_RR.Use the static priority-switch -p
to designate inter-process-hierarchies.
- schedtool now supports setting the CPU-affinity introduced in linux 2.5.8.
- -N or -0
- set all PIDs to SCHED_NORMAL/OTHER
- -F or -1
- to SCHED_FIFO root-credentials required
- -R or -2
- to SCHED_RR root-credentials required
- -B or -3
- to SCHED_BATCH
- -I or -4
- to SCHED_ISO
- -D or -5
- to SCHED_IDLEPRIO
- -M policy
- for manual/raw mode; policy is the number of the scheduling policy (see above for 0-4). This option is mostly for kernel guys that want to test their new implementations.
- -p prio
- specify static priority required for SCHED_FIFO and SCHED_RR. Usually ranged from 1-99.
- -a affinity
- set the PID's affinity to this bitmask (hexadecimal); alternatively, a list mode is supported.
- -n nice_level
- set the PID's nice level; see nice(2), nice(1).
- -e command [arg ...]
- execute command with given scheduling parameters (overwrites schedtool's process image). See EXAMPLES.
- display min and max priority for each policy.
- be verbose.
To query the $SHELL's policies:
#> schedtool $$To query some PIDs, namely 1 2 and 3: #> schedtool 1 2 3
mplayer in SCHED_RR
with priority 20. The priority arg is neededfor both SCHED_RR and SCHED_FIFO.
#> schedtool -R -p 20 -e mplayer -quiet some_file.avi
To set current shell to SCHED_BATCH
, which all programs the shell starts will inherit:
#> schedtool -3 $$
To set all processes with the name 'cpu_hog' to SCHED_BATCH:
#> schedtool -3 `pidof cpu_hog`
To set a process' affinity
to only the first CPU (CPU0):
#> schedtool -a 0x1 <PID>Using the list mode and affinty of CPU0 and CPU3: #> schedtool -a 0,3 <PID>
A combination of an affinity
and a policy
-argument is - of course - always possible.
#> schedtool -B -a 0x1 <PID>
-argument determines on which CPUs a process is allowed to run.
It consists of a simple bitmask represented in hexadecimal.
CPU0 is denoted by the least-significant bit, CPU1 by the second least-significant and so on, thus giving:
0x1 -> only run on CPU0
0x2 -> only run on CPU1
0x4 -> only run on CPU2
0x8 -> only run on CPU3 ... and so on.
Multi-target CPUs may be specified using bitwise OR of the values:
0x7 -> run on CPUs 0, 1, 2 but NOT on 4
0x3 -> run only on CPUs 0 and 1
The default is to run a process on all CPUs, giving a mask of
0xf for all 4 CPUs
0xff for all 8 CPUs
POLICY OVERVIEWSCHED_NORMAL / SCHED_OTHER
This is the default policy and for the average program with some interaction. Does preemption of other processes.
SCHED_FIFOFirst-In, First Out Scheduler, used only for real-time contraints.Processes in this class are usually not preempted by others, they need to freethemselves from the CPU via sched_yield() and as such you need specialdesigned applications. Use with extreme care.ROOT-credentials required.
SCHED_RRRound-Robin Scheduler, also used for real-time constraints. CPU-time is assigned in an round-robin fashionwith a much smaller timeslice than with SCHED_NORMAL and processes inthis group are favoured over SCHED_NORMAL. Usable for audio/video applications nearpeak rate of the system.ROOT-credentials required.
SCHED_BATCH [ since 2.6.16 in mainline ]SCHED_BATCH was designed for non-interactive, CPU-bound applications.It uses longer timeslices (to better exploit the cache), but can beinterrupted anytime by other processes in other classes to guarateeinteraction of the system. Processes in this class are selected lastbut may result in a considerable speed-up (up to 300%). No interactiveboosting is done.
SCHED_ISO [ patch needed ]SCHED_ISO was designed to give users a SCHED_RR-similar class.To quote Con Kolivas: "This is a non-expiring scheduler policy designed to guarantee a timeslice within a reasonable latency while preventing starvation.Good for gaming, video at the limits of hardware, video capture etc."
SCHED_IDLEPRIO [ patch needed ]SCHED_IDLEPRIO is similar to SCHED_BATCH, but was explicitely designedto consume only the time the CPU is idle. No interactive boosting is done.If you used SCHED_BATCH in the -ck kernels this is what you want since2.6.16
PID 0 means "current process", in our case, schedtool. May occur when using the -e switch.
Be careful with SCHED_FIFO! You may lock out other processes from the CPU, including your shell.
For SCHED_BATCH you certainly need the a recent 2.6 kernel.
A short overview is given in SCHED_DESIGN and the README contains thourough discussion. The INSTALL file also lists all prerequisites and where you can get patches.
Affinity 0x0 should never be used.
You need some knowledge about the kernel and scheduling. The author is a grumpy little elitist.
FreekPlease contact me via freshmeat.net's "contact author"-feature (http://freshmeat.net/projects/schedtool).
- AFFINITY MASK
- POLICY OVERVIEW
- SEE ALSO
This document was created byman2html,using the manual pages.