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MAN page from RedHat EL 5 perl-MIME-Lite-3.028-1.el5.rf.noarch.rpm

MIME::Lite

Section: User Contributed Perl Documentation (3)
Updated: 2011-11-09
Index 

NAME

MIME::Lite - low-calorie MIME generator 

WAIT!

MIME::Lite is not recommended by its current maintainer. There are a number ofalternatives, like Email::MIME or MIME::Entity and Email::Sender, which youshould probably use instead. MIME::Lite continues to accrue weird bug reports,and it is not receiving a large amount of refactoring due to the availabilityof better alternatives. Please consider using something else. 

SYNOPSIS

Create and send using the default send method for your OS a single-part message:

    use MIME::Lite;    ### Create a new single-part message, to send a GIF file:    $msg = MIME::Lite->new(        From     => 'meAATTmyhost.com',        To       => 'youAATTyourhost.com',        Cc       => 'some@other.com, someAATTmore.com',        Subject  => 'Helloooooo, nurse!',        Type     => 'image/gif',        Encoding => 'base64',        Path     => 'hellonurse.gif'    );    $msg->send; # send via default

Create a multipart message (i.e., one with attachments) and send it SMTP

    ### Create a new multipart message:    $msg = MIME::Lite->new(        From    => 'meAATTmyhost.com',        To      => 'youAATTyourhost.com',        Cc      => 'some@other.com, someAATTmore.com',        Subject => 'A message with 2 parts...',        Type    => 'multipart/mixed'    );

    ### Add parts (each "attach" has same arguments as "new"):    $msg->attach(        Type     => 'TEXT',        Data     => "Here's the GIF file you wanted"    );    $msg->attach(        Type     => 'image/gif',        Path     => 'aaa000123.gif',        Filename => 'logo.gif',        Disposition => 'attachment'    );    ### use Net:SMTP to do the sending    $msg->send('smtp','some.host', Debug=>1 );

Output a message:

    ### Format as a string:    $str = $msg->as_string;

    ### Print to a filehandle (say, a "sendmail" stream):    $msg->print(\*SENDMAIL);

Send a message:

    ### Send in the "best" way (the default is to use "sendmail"):    $msg->send;    ### Send a specific way:    $msg->send('type',@args);

Specify default send method:

    MIME::Lite->send('smtp','some.host',Debug=>0);

with authentication

    MIME::Lite->send('smtp','some.host', AuthUser=>$user, AuthPass=>$pass);
 

DESCRIPTION

In the never-ending quest for great taste with fewer calories,we proudly present: MIME::Lite.

MIME::Lite is intended as a simple, standalone module for generating(not parsing!) MIME messages... specifically, it allows you tooutput a simple, decent single- or multi-part message with text or binaryattachments. It does not require that you have the Mail:: or MIME::modules installed, but will work with them if they are.

You can specify each message part as either the literal data itself (ina scalar or array), or as a string which can be given to open() to geta readable filehandle (e.g., ``<filename'' or ``somecommand|'').

You don't need to worry about encoding your message data:this module will do that for you. It handles the 5 standard MIME encodings. 

EXAMPLES

 

Create a simple message containing just text

    $msg = MIME::Lite->new(        From     =>'meAATTmyhost.com',        To       =>'youAATTyourhost.com',        Cc       =>'some@other.com, someAATTmore.com',        Subject  =>'Helloooooo, nurse!',        Data     =>"How's it goin', eh?"    );
 

Create a simple message containing just an image

    $msg = MIME::Lite->new(        From     =>'meAATTmyhost.com',        To       =>'youAATTyourhost.com',        Cc       =>'some@other.com, someAATTmore.com',        Subject  =>'Helloooooo, nurse!',        Type     =>'image/gif',        Encoding =>'base64',        Path     =>'hellonurse.gif'    );
 

Create a multipart message

    ### Create the multipart "container":    $msg = MIME::Lite->new(        From    =>'meAATTmyhost.com',        To      =>'youAATTyourhost.com',        Cc      =>'some@other.com, someAATTmore.com',        Subject =>'A message with 2 parts...',        Type    =>'multipart/mixed'    );

    ### Add the text message part:    ### (Note that "attach" has same arguments as "new"):    $msg->attach(        Type     =>'TEXT',        Data     =>"Here's the GIF file you wanted"    );

    ### Add the image part:    $msg->attach(        Type        =>'image/gif',        Path        =>'aaa000123.gif',        Filename    =>'logo.gif',        Disposition => 'attachment'    );
 

Attach a GIF to a text message

This will create a multipart message exactly as above, but using the``attach to singlepart'' hack:

    ### Start with a simple text message:    $msg = MIME::Lite->new(        From    =>'meAATTmyhost.com',        To      =>'youAATTyourhost.com',        Cc      =>'some@other.com, someAATTmore.com',        Subject =>'A message with 2 parts...',        Type    =>'TEXT',        Data    =>"Here's the GIF file you wanted"    );

    ### Attach a part... the make the message a multipart automatically:    $msg->attach(        Type     =>'image/gif',        Path     =>'aaa000123.gif',        Filename =>'logo.gif'    );
 

Attach a pre-prepared part to a message

    ### Create a standalone part:    $part = MIME::Lite->new(        Top      => 0,        Type     =>'text/html',        Data     =>'<H1>Hello</H1>',    );    $part->attr('content-type.charset' => 'UTF-8');    $part->add('X-Comment' => 'A message for you');

    ### Attach it to any message:    $msg->attach($part);
 

Print a message to a filehandle

    ### Write it to a filehandle:    $msg->print(\*STDOUT);

    ### Write just the header:    $msg->print_header(\*STDOUT);

    ### Write just the encoded body:    $msg->print_body(\*STDOUT);
 

Print a message into a string

    ### Get entire message as a string:    $str = $msg->as_string;

    ### Get just the header:    $str = $msg->header_as_string;

    ### Get just the encoded body:    $str = $msg->body_as_string;
 

Send a message

    ### Send in the "best" way (the default is to use "sendmail"):    $msg->send;
 

Send an HTML document... with images included!

    $msg = MIME::Lite->new(         To      =>'youAATTyourhost.com',         Subject =>'HTML with in-line images!',         Type    =>'multipart/related'    );    $msg->attach(        Type => 'text/html',        Data => qq{            <body>                Here's <i>my</i> image:                <img src="cid:myimage.gif">            </body>        },    );    $msg->attach(        Type => 'image/gif',        Id   => 'myimage.gif',        Path => '/path/to/somefile.gif',    );    $msg->send();
 

Change how messages are sent

    ### Do something like this in your 'main':    if ($I_DONT_HAVE_SENDMAIL) {       MIME::Lite->send('smtp', $host, Timeout=>60,           AuthUser=>$user, AuthPass=>$pass);    }

    ### Now this will do the right thing:    $msg->send;         ### will now use Net::SMTP as shown above
 

PUBLIC INTERFACE

 

Global configuration

To alter the way the entire module behaves, you have the followingmethods/options:
MIME::Lite->field_order()
When used as a classmethod, this changes the defaultorder in which headers are output for all messages.However, please consider using the instance method variant instead,so you won't stomp on other message senders in the same application.
MIME::Lite->quiet()
This classmethod can be used to suppress/unsuppressall warnings coming from this module.
MIME::Lite->send()
When used as a classmethod, this can be used to specifya different default mechanism for sending message.The initial default is:

    MIME::Lite->send("sendmail", "/usr/lib/sendmail -t -oi -oem");

However, you should consider the similar but smarter and taint-safe variant:

    MIME::Lite->send("sendmail");

Or, for non-Unix users:

    MIME::Lite->send("smtp");
$MIME::Lite::AUTO_CC
If true, automatically send to the Cc/Bcc addresses for send_by_smtp().Default is true.
$MIME::Lite::AUTO_CONTENT_TYPE
If true, try to automatically choose the content type from the file namein "new()"/"build()". In other words, setting this true changes thedefault "Type" from "TEXT" to "AUTO".

Default is false, since we must maintain backwards-compatibilitywith prior behavior. Please consider keeping it false,and just using Type 'AUTO' when you build() or attach().

$MIME::Lite::AUTO_ENCODE
If true, automatically choose the encoding from the content type.Default is true.
$MIME::Lite::AUTO_VERIFY
If true, check paths to attachments right before printing, raising an exceptionif any path is unreadable.Default is true.
$MIME::Lite::PARANOID
If true, we won't attempt to use MIME::Base64, MIME::QuotedPrint,or MIME::Types, even if they're available.Default is false. Please consider keeping it false,and trusting these other packages to do the right thing.
 

Construction

new [PARAMHASH]
Class method, constructor.Create a new message object.

If any arguments are given, they are passed into "build()"; otherwise,just the empty object is created.

attach PART
attach PARAMHASH...
Instance method.Add a new part to this message, and return the new part.

If you supply a single PART argument, it will be regardedas a MIME::Lite object to be attached. Otherwise, thismethod assumes that you are giving in the pairs of a PARAMHASHwhich will be sent into "new()" to create the new part.

One of the possibly-quite-useful hacks thrown into this is the``attach-to-singlepart'' hack: if you attempt to attach a part (let'scall it ``part 1'') to a message that doesn't have a content-typeof ``multipart'' or ``message'', the following happens:

*
A new part (call it ``part 0'') is made.
*
The MIME attributes and data (but not the other headers)are cut from the ``self'' message, and pasted into ``part 0''.
*
The ``self'' is turned into a ``multipart/mixed'' message.
*
The new ``part 0'' is added to the ``self'', and then ``part 1'' is added.

One of the nice side-effects is that you can create a text messageand then add zero or more attachments to it, much in the same waythat a user agent like Netscape allows you to do.

build [PARAMHASH]
Class/instance method, initializer.Create (or initialize) a MIME message object.Normally, you'll use the following keys in PARAMHASH:

   * Data, FH, or Path      (either one of these, or none if multipart)   * Type                   (e.g., "image/jpeg")   * From, To, and Subject  (if this is the "top level" of a message)

The PARAMHASH can contain the following keys:

(fieldname)
Any field you want placed in the message header, taken from thestandard list of header fields (you don't need to worry about case):

    Approved      Encrypted     Received      Sender    Bcc           From          References    Subject    Cc            Keywords      Reply-To      To    Comments      Message-ID    Resent-*      X-*    Content-*     MIME-Version  Return-Path    Date                        Organization

To give experienced users some veto power, these fields will be setafter the ones I set... so be careful: don't set any MIME fields(like "Content-type") unless you know what you're doing!

To specify a fieldname that's not in the above list, even one that'sidentical to an option below, just give it with a trailing ":",like "My-field:". When in doubt, that always signals a mailfield (and it sort of looks like one too).

Data
Alternative to ``Path'' or ``FH''.The actual message data. This may be a scalar or a ref to an array ofstrings; if the latter, the message consists of a simple concatenationof all the strings in the array.
Datestamp
Optional.If given true (or omitted), we force the creation of a "Date:" fieldstamped with the current date/time if this is a top-level message.You may want this if using send_by_smtp().If you don't want this to be done, either provide your own Dateor explicitly set this to false.
Disposition
Optional.The content disposition, "inline" or "attachment".The default is "inline".
Encoding
Optional.The content transfer encoding that should be used to encode your data:

   Use encoding:     | If your message contains:   ------------------------------------------------------------   7bit              | Only 7-bit text, all lines <1000 characters   8bit              | 8-bit text, all lines <1000 characters   quoted-printable  | 8-bit text or long lines (more reliable than "8bit")   base64            | Largely non-textual data: a GIF, a tar file, etc.

The default is taken from the Type; generally it is ``binary'' (noencoding) for text/*, message/*, and multipart/*, and ``base64'' foreverything else. A value of "binary" is generally not suitablefor sending anything but ASCII text files with lines under 1000characters, so consider using one of the other values instead.

In the case of ``7bit''/``8bit'', long lines are automatically chopped tolegal length; in the case of ``7bit'', all 8-bit characters areautomatically removed. This may not be what you want, so pick yourencoding well! For more info, see ``A MIME PRIMER''.

FH
Alternative to ``Data'' or ``Path''.Filehandle containing the data, opened for reading.See ``ReadNow'' also.
Filename
Optional.The name of the attachment. You can use this to supply arecommended filename for the end-user who is saving the attachmentto disk. You only need this if the filename at the end of the``Path'' is inadequate, or if you're using ``Data'' instead of ``Path''.You should not put path information in here (e.g., no ``/''or ``\'' or ``:'' characters should be used).
Id
Optional.Same as setting ``content-id''.
Length
Optional.Set the content length explicitly. Normally, this header is automaticallycomputed, but only under certain circumstances (see ``Benign limitations'').
Path
Alternative to ``Data'' or ``FH''.Path to a file containing the data... actually, it can be any open()ableexpression. If it looks like a path, the last element will automaticallybe treated as the filename.See ``ReadNow'' also.
ReadNow
Optional, for use with ``Path''.If true, will open the path and slurp the contents into core now.This is useful if the Path points to a command and you don't wantto run the command over and over if outputting the message severaltimes. Fatal exception raised if the open fails.
Top
Optional.If defined, indicates whether or not this is a ``top-level'' MIME message.The parts of a multipart message are not top-level.Default is true.
Type
Optional.The MIME content type, or one of these special values (case-sensitive):

     "TEXT"   means "text/plain"     "BINARY" means "application/octet-stream"     "AUTO"   means attempt to guess from the filename, falling back              to 'application/octet-stream'.  This is good if you have              MIME::Types on your system and you have no idea what              file might be used for the attachment.

The default is "TEXT", but it will be "AUTO" if you set$AUTO_CONTENT_TYPE to true (sorry, but you have to enableit explicitly, since we don't want to break code which dependson the old behavior).

A picture being worth 1000 words (whichis of course 2000 bytes, so it's probably more of an ``icon'' than a ``picture'',but I digress...), here are some examples:

    $msg = MIME::Lite->build(        From     => 'yellingAATTinter.com',        To       => 'stockingAATTfish.net',        Subject  => "Hi there!",        Type     => 'TEXT',        Encoding => '7bit',        Data     => "Just a quick note to say hi!"    );

    $msg = MIME::Lite->build(        From     => 'dorothyAATTemerald-city.oz',        To       => 'gesundheitAATTedu.edu.edu',        Subject  => "A gif for U"        Type     => 'image/gif',        Path     => "/home/httpd/logo.gif"    );

    $msg = MIME::Lite->build(        From     => 'laughingAATTall.of.us',        To       => 'scarlettAATTfiddle.dee.de',        Subject  => "A gzipp'ed tar file",        Type     => 'x-gzip',        Path     => "gzip < /usr/inc/somefile.tar |",        ReadNow  => 1,        Filename => "somefile.tgz"    );

To show you what's really going on, that last example could alsohave been written:

    $msg = new MIME::Lite;    $msg->build(        Type     => 'x-gzip',        Path     => "gzip < /usr/inc/somefile.tar |",        ReadNow  => 1,        Filename => "somefile.tgz"    );    $msg->add(From    => "laughingAATTall.of.us");    $msg->add(To      => "scarlettAATTfiddle.dee.de");    $msg->add(Subject => "A gzipp'ed tar file");
 

Setting/getting headers and attributes

add TAG,VALUE
Instance method.Add field TAG with the given VALUE to the end of the header.The TAG will be converted to all-lowercase, and the VALUEwill be made ``safe'' (returns will be given a trailing space).

Beware: any MIME fields you ``add'' will override any MIMEattributes I have when it comes time to output those fields.Normally, you will use this method to add non-MIME fields:

    $msg->add("Subject" => "Hi there!");

Giving VALUE as an arrayref will cause all those values to be added.This is only useful for special multiple-valued fields like ``Received'':

    $msg->add("Received" => ["here", "there", "everywhere"]

Giving VALUE as the empty string adds an invisible placeholderto the header, which can be used to suppress the output ofthe ``Content-*'' fields or the special ``MIME-Version'' field.When suppressing fields, you should use replace() instead of add():

    $msg->replace("Content-disposition" => "");

Note: add() is probably going to be more efficient than "replace()",so you're better off using it for most applications if you arecertain that you don't need to delete() the field first.

Note: the name comes from Mail::Header.

attr ATTR,[VALUE]
Instance method.Set MIME attribute ATTR to the string VALUE.ATTR is converted to all-lowercase.This method is normally used to set/get MIME attributes:

    $msg->attr("content-type"         => "text/html");    $msg->attr("content-type.charset" => "US-ASCII");    $msg->attr("content-type.name"    => "homepage.html");

This would cause the final output to look something like this:

    Content-type: text/html; charset=US-ASCII; name="homepage.html"

Note that the special empty sub-field tag indicates the anonymousfirst sub-field.

Giving VALUE as undefined will cause the contents of the namedsubfield to be deleted.

Supplying no VALUE argument just returns the attribute's value:

    $type = $msg->attr("content-type");        ### returns "text/html"    $name = $msg->attr("content-type.name");   ### returns "homepage.html"
delete TAG
Instance method.Delete field TAG with the given VALUE to the end of the header.The TAG will be converted to all-lowercase.

    $msg->delete("Subject");

Note: the name comes from Mail::Header.

field_order FIELD,...FIELD
Class/instance method.Change the order in which header fields are output for this object:

    $msg->field_order('from', 'to', 'content-type', 'subject');

When used as a class method, changes the default settings forall objects:

    MIME::Lite->field_order('from', 'to', 'content-type', 'subject');

Case does not matter: all field names will be coerced to lowercase.In either case, supply the empty array to restore the default ordering.

fields
Instance method.Return the full header for the object, as a ref to an arrayof "[TAG, VALUE]" pairs, where each TAG is all-lowercase.Note that any fields the user has explicitly set will override thecorresponding MIME fields that we would otherwise generate.So, don't say...

    $msg->set("Content-type" => "text/html; charset=US-ASCII");

unless you want the above value to override the ``Content-type''MIME field that we would normally generate.

Note: I called this ``fields'' because the header() method ofMail::Header returns something different, but similar enough tobe confusing.

You can change the order of the fields: see ``field_order''.You really shouldn't need to do this, but some people have todeal with broken mailers.

filename [FILENAME]
Instance method.Set the filename which this data will be reported as.This actually sets both ``standard'' attributes.

With no argument, returns the filename as dictated by thecontent-disposition.

get TAG,[INDEX]
Instance method.Get the contents of field TAG, which might have been setwith set() or replace(). Returns the text of the field.

    $ml->get('Subject', 0);

If the optional 0-based INDEX is given, then we return the INDEX'thoccurence of field TAG. Otherwise, we look at the context:In a scalar context, only the first (0th) occurence of thefield is returned; in an array context, all occurences are returned.

Warning: this should only be used with non-MIME fields.Behavior with MIME fields is TBD, and will raise an exception for now.

get_length
Instance method.Recompute the content length for the message if the process is trivial,setting the ``content-length'' attribute as a side-effect:

    $msg->get_length;

Returns the length, or undefined if not set.

Note: the content length can be difficult to compute, since itinvolves assembling the entire encoded body and taking the lengthof it (which, in the case of multipart messages, means freezingall the sub-parts, etc.).

This method only sets the content length to a defined value if themessage is a singlepart with "binary" encoding, and the body isavailable either in-core or as a simple file. Otherwise, the contentlength is set to the undefined value.

Since content-length is not a standard MIME field anyway (that's right, kids:it's not in the MIME RFCs, it's an HTTP thing), this seems pretty fair.

parts
Instance method.Return the parts of this entity, and this entity only.Returns empty array if this entity has no parts.

This is not recursive! Parts can have sub-parts; useparts_DFS() to get everything.

parts_DFS
Instance method.Return the list of all MIME::Lite objects included in the entity,starting with the entity itself, in depth-first-search order.If this object has no parts, it alone will be returned.
preamble [TEXT]
Instance method.Get/set the preamble string, assuming that this object has subparts.Set it to undef for the default string.
replace TAG,VALUE
Instance method.Delete all occurences of fields named TAG, and add a newfield with the given VALUE. TAG is converted to all-lowercase.

Beware the special MIME fields (MIME-version, Content-*):if you ``replace'' a MIME field, the replacement text will overridethe actual MIME attributes when it comes time to output that field.So normally you use attr() to change MIME fields and add()/replace() tochange non-MIME fields:

    $msg->replace("Subject" => "Hi there!");

Giving VALUE as the empty string will effectively prevent thatfield from being output. This is the correct way to suppressthe special MIME fields:

    $msg->replace("Content-disposition" => "");

Giving VALUE as undefined will just cause all explicit valuesfor TAG to be deleted, without having any new values added.

Note: the name of this method comes from Mail::Header.

scrub
Instance method.This is Alpha code. If you use it, please let me know how it goes.Recursively goes through the ``parts'' tree of this message and triesto find MIME attributes that can be removed.With an array argument, removes exactly those attributes; e.g.:

    $msg->scrub(['content-disposition', 'content-length']);

Is the same as recursively doing:

    $msg->replace('Content-disposition' => '');    $msg->replace('Content-length'      => '');
 

Setting/getting message data

binmode [OVERRIDE]
Instance method.With no argument, returns whether or not it thinks that the data(as given by the ``Path'' argument of "build()") should be read usingbinmode() (for example, when "read_now()" is invoked).

The default behavior is that any content type other than"text/*" or "message/*" is binmode'd; this should in general work fine.

With a defined argument, this method sets an explicit ``override''value. An undefined argument unsets the override.The new current value is returned.

data [DATA]
Instance method.Get/set the literal DATA of the message. The DATA may beeither a scalar, or a reference to an array of scalars (whichwill simply be joined).

Warning: setting the data causes the ``content-length'' attributeto be recomputed (possibly to nothing).

fh [FILEHANDLE]
Instance method.Get/set the FILEHANDLE which contains the message data.

Takes a filehandle as an input and stores it in the object.This routine is similar to path(); one important difference is thatno attempt is made to set the content length.

path [PATH]
Instance method.Get/set the PATH to the message data.

Warning: setting the path recomputes any existing ``content-length'' field,and re-sets the ``filename'' (to the last element of the path if itlooks like a simple path, and to nothing if not).

resetfh [FILEHANDLE]
Instance method.Set the current position of the filehandle back to the beginning.Only applies if you used ``FH'' in build() or attach() for this message.

Returns false if unable to reset the filehandle (since not all filehandlesare seekable).

read_now
Instance method.Forces data from the path/filehandle (as specified by "build()")to be read into core immediately, just as though you had given itliterally with the "Data" keyword.

Note that the in-core data will always be used if available.

Be aware that everything is slurped into a giant scalar: you may not wantto use this if sending tar files! The benefit of not reading in the datais that very large files can be handled by this module if left on diskuntil the message is output via "print()" or "print_body()".

sign PARAMHASH
Instance method.Sign the message. This forces the message to be read into core,after which the signature is appended to it.
Data
As in "build()": the literal signature data.Can be either a scalar or a ref to an array of scalars.
Path
As in "build()": the path to the file.

If no arguments are given, the default is:

    Path => "$ENV{HOME}/.signature"

The content-length is recomputed.

verify_data
Instance method.Verify that all ``paths'' to attached data exist, recursively.It might be a good idea for you to do this before a print(), toprevent accidental partial output if a file might be missing.Raises exception if any path is not readable.
 

Output

print [OUTHANDLE]
Instance method.Print the message to the given output handle, or to the currently-selectedfilehandle if none was given.

All OUTHANDLE has to be is a filehandle (possibly a glob ref), orany object that responds to a print() message.

print_body [OUTHANDLE] [IS_SMTP]
Instance method.Print the body of a message to the given output handle, or tothe currently-selected filehandle if none was given.

All OUTHANDLE has to be is a filehandle (possibly a glob ref), orany object that responds to a print() message.

Fatal exception raised if unable to open any of the input files,or if a part contains no data, or if an unsupported encoding isencountered.

IS_SMPT is a special option to handle SMTP mails a little moreintelligently than other send mechanisms may require. Specifically thisensures that the last byte sent is NOT '\n' (octal \012) if the last twobytes are not '\r\n' (\015\012) as this will cause some SMTP servers tohang.

print_header [OUTHANDLE]
Instance method.Print the header of the message to the given output handle,or to the currently-selected filehandle if none was given.

All OUTHANDLE has to be is a filehandle (possibly a glob ref), orany object that responds to a print() message.

as_string
Instance method.Return the entire message as a string, with a header and an encoded body.
body_as_string
Instance method.Return the encoded body as a string.This is the portion after the header and the blank line.

Note: actually prepares the body by ``printing'' to a scalar.Proof that you can hand the "print*()" methods any blessed objectthat responds to a "print()" message.

header_as_string
Instance method.Return the header as a string.
 

Sending

send
send HOW, HOWARGS...
Class/instance method.This is the principal method for sending mail, and for configuringhow mail will be sent.

As a class method with a HOW argument and optional HOWARGS, it setsthe default sending mechanism that the no-argument instance methodwill use. The HOW is a facility name (see below),and the HOWARGS is interpreted by the facilty.The class method returns the previous HOW and HOWARGS as an array.

    MIME::Lite->send('sendmail', "d:\\programs\\sendmail.exe");    ...    $msg = MIME::Lite->new(...);    $msg->send;

As an instance method with arguments(a HOW argument and optional HOWARGS), sends the message in therequested manner; e.g.:

    $msg->send('sendmail', "d:\\programs\\sendmail.exe");

As an instance method with no arguments, sends themessage by the default mechanism set up by the class method.Returns whatever the mail-handling routine returns: thisshould be true on success, false/exception on error:

    $msg = MIME::Lite->new(From=>...);    $msg->send || die "you DON'T have mail!";

On Unix systems (or rather non-Win32 systems), the defaultsetting is equivalent to:

    MIME::Lite->send("sendmail", "/usr/lib/sendmail -t -oi -oem");

On Win32 systems the default setting is equivalent to:

    MIME::Lite->send("smtp");

The assumption is that on Win32 your site/lib/Net/libnet.cfgfile will be preconfigured to use the appropriate SMTPserver. See below for configuring for authentication.

There are three facilities:

sendmail, ARGS...
Send a message by piping it into the ``sendmail'' command.Uses the send_by_sendmail() method, giving it the ARGS.This usage implements (and deprecates) the "sendmail()" method.
smtp, [HOSTNAME, [NAMEDPARMS] ]
Send a message by SMTP, using optional HOSTNAME as SMTP-sending host.Net::SMTP will be required. Uses the send_by_smtp()method. Any additional arguments passed in will also be passed through tosend_by_smtp. This is useful for things like mail servers requiringauthentication where you can say something like the following

  MIME::Lite->send('smtp', $host, AuthUser=>$user, AuthPass=>$pass);

which will configure things so future uses of

  $msg->send();

do the right thing.

sub, \&SUBREF, ARGS...
Sends a message MSG by invoking the subroutine SUBREF of your choosing,with MSG as the first argument, and ARGS following.

For example: let's say you're on an OS which lacks the usual Unix``sendmail'' facility, but you've installed something a lot like it, andyou need to configure your Perl script to use this ``sendmail.exe'' program.Do this following in your script's setup:

    MIME::Lite->send('sendmail', "d:\\programs\\sendmail.exe");

Then, whenever you need to send a message $msg, just say:

    $msg->send;

That's it. Now, if you ever move your script to a Unix box, all youneed to do is change that line in the setup and you're done.All of your $msg->send invocations will work as expected.

After sending, the method last_send_successful() can be used to determineif the send was successful or not.

send_by_sendmail SENDMAILCMD
send_by_sendmail PARAM=>VALUE, ARRAY, HASH...
Instance method.Send message via an external ``sendmail'' program(this will probably only work out-of-the-box on Unix systems).

Returns true on success, false or exception on error.

You can specify the program and all its arguments by giving a singlestring, SENDMAILCMD. Nothing fancy is done; the message is simplypiped in.

However, if your needs are a little more advanced, you can specifyzero or more of the following PARAM/VALUE pairs (or a reference to hashor array of such arguments as well as any combination thereof); aUnix-style, taint-safe ``sendmail'' command will be constructed for you:

Sendmail
Full path to the program to use.Default is ``/usr/lib/sendmail''.
BaseArgs
Ref to the basic array of arguments we start with.Default is "["-t", "-oi", "-oem"]".
SetSender
Unless this is explicitly given as false, we attempt to automaticallyset the "-f" argument to the first address that can be extracted fromthe ``From:'' field of the message (if there is one).

What is the -f, and why do we use it?Suppose we did not use "-f", and you gave an explicit ``From:''field in your message: in this case, the sendmail ``envelope'' wouldindicate the real user your process was running under, as a wayof preventing mail forgery. Using the "-f" switch causes the senderto be set in the envelope as well.

So when would I NOT want to use it?If sendmail doesn't regard you as a ``trusted'' user, it will permitthe "-f" but also add an ``X-Authentication-Warning'' header to the messageto indicate a forged envelope. To avoid this, you can either(1) have SetSender be false, or(2) make yourself a trusted user by adding a "T" configuration
    command to your sendmail.cf file
    (e.g.: "Teryq" if the script is running as user ``eryq'').

FromSender
If defined, this is identical to setting SetSender to true,except that instead of looking at the ``From:'' field we usethe address given by this option.Thus:

    FromSender => 'meAATTmyhost.com'

After sending, the method last_send_successful() can be used to determineif the send was successful or not.

send_by_smtp HOST, ARGS...
send_by_smtp REF, HOST, ARGS
Instance method.Send message via SMTP, using Net::SMTP --- which will be required for thisfeature.

HOST is the name of SMTP server to connect to, or undef to haveNet::SMTP use the defaults in Libnet.cfg.

ARGS are a list of key value pairs which may be selected from the listbelow. Many of these are just passed through to specificNet::SMTP commands and you should review that module fordetails.

Please see Good-vs-bad email addresses with send_by_smtp()

Hello
LocalAddr
LocalPort
Timeout
Port
ExactAddresses
Debug
See Net::SMTP::new() for details.
Size
Return
Bits
Transaction
Envelope
See Net::SMTP::mail() for details.
SkipBad
If true doesnt throw an error when multiple email addresses are providedand some are not valid. See Net::SMTP::recipient()for details.
AuthUser
Authenticate with Net::SMTP::auth() using this username.
AuthPass
Authenticate with Net::SMTP::auth() using this password.
NoAuth
Normally if AuthUser and AuthPass are defined MIME::Lite will attempt touse them with the Net::SMTP::auth() command toauthenticate the connection, however if this value is true then noauthentication occurs.
To
Sets the addresses to send to. Can be a string or a reference to anarray of strings. Normally this is extracted from the To: (and Cc: andBcc: fields if $AUTO_CC is true).

This value overrides that.

From
Sets the email address to send from. Normally this value is extractedfrom the Return-Path: or From: field of the mail itself (in that order).

This value overides that.

Returns:True on success, croaks with an error message on failure.

After sending, the method last_send_successful() can be used to determineif the send was successful or not.

send_by_testfile FILENAME
Instance method.Print message to a file (namely FILENAME), which will default tomailer.testfileIf file exists, message will be appended.
last_send_successful
This method will return TRUE if the last send() or send_by_XXX() method call wassuccessful. It will return defined but false if it was not successful, and undefinedif the object had not been used to send yet.
sendmail COMMAND...
Class method, DEPRECATED.Declare the sender to be ``sendmail'', and set up the ``sendmail'' command.You should use send() instead.
 

Miscellaneous

quiet ONOFF
Class method.Suppress/unsuppress all warnings coming from this module.

    MIME::Lite->quiet(1);       ### I know what I'm doing

I recommend that you include that comment as well. And whileyou type it, say it out loud: if it doesn't feel right, then maybeyou should reconsider the whole line. ";-)"

 

NOTES

 

How do I prevent Content headers from showing up in my mail reader?

Apparently, some people are using mail readers which display the MIMEheaders like ``Content-disposition'', and they want MIME::Lite notto generate them ``because they look ugly''.

Sigh.

Y'know, kids, those headers aren't just there for cosmetic purposes.They help ensure that the message is understood correctly by mailreaders. But okay, you asked for it, you got it...here's how you can suppress the standard MIME headers.Before you send the message, do this:

    $msg->scrub;

You can scrub() any part of a multipart message independently;just be aware that it works recursively. Before you scrub,note the rules that I follow:

Content-type
You can safely scrub the ``content-type'' attribute if, and only if,the part is of type ``text/plain'' with charset ``us-ascii''.
Content-transfer-encoding
You can safely scrub the ``content-transfer-encoding'' attributeif, and only if, the part uses ``7bit'', ``8bit'', or ``binary'' encoding.You are far better off doing this if your lines are under 1000characters. Generally, that means you can scrub it for plaintext, and you can not scrub this for images, etc.
Content-disposition
You can safely scrub the ``content-disposition'' attributeif you trust the mail reader to do the right thing when it decideswhether to show an attachment inline or as a link. Be awarethat scrubbing both the content-disposition and the content-typemeans that there is no way to ``recommend'' a filename for the attachment!

Note: there are reports of brain-dead MUAs out there thatdo the wrong thing if you provide the content-disposition.If your attachments keep showing up inline or vice-versa,try scrubbing this attribute.

Content-length
You can always scrub ``content-length'' safely.
 

How do I give my attachment a [different] recommended filename?

By using the Filename option (which is different from Path!):

    $msg->attach(Type => "image/gif",                 Path => "/here/is/the/real/file.GIF",                 Filename => "logo.gif");

You should not put path information in the Filename. 

Benign limitations

This is ``lite'', after all...
*
There's no parsing. Get MIME-tools if you need to parse MIME messages.
*
MIME::Lite messages are currently not interchangeable witheither Mail::Internet or MIME::Entity objects. This is a completelyseparate module.
*
A content-length field is only inserted if the encoding is binary,the message is a singlepart, and all the document data is availableat "build()" time by virtue of residing in a simple path, or in-core.Since content-length is not a standard MIME field anyway (that's right, kids:it's not in the MIME RFCs, it's an HTTP thing), this seems pretty fair.
*
MIME::Lite alone cannot help you lose weight. You must supplementyour use of MIME::Lite with a healthy diet and exercise.
 

Cheap and easy mailing

I thought putting in a default ``sendmail'' invocation wasn't too bad anidea, since a lot of Perlers are on UNIX systems. (As of version 3.02 this isdefault only on Non-Win32 boxen. On Win32 boxen the default is to use SMTP and thedefaults specified in the site/lib/Net/libnet.cfg)

The out-of-the-box configuration is:

     MIME::Lite->send('sendmail', "/usr/lib/sendmail -t -oi -oem");

By the way, these arguments to sendmail are:

     -t      Scan message for To:, Cc:, Bcc:, etc.

     -oi     Do NOT treat a single "." on a line as a message terminator.             As in, "-oi vey, it truncated my message... why?!"

     -oem    On error, mail back the message (I assume to the             appropriate address, given in the header).             When mail returns, circle is complete.  Jai Guru Deva -oem.

Note that these are the same arguments you get if you configure to usethe smarter, taint-safe mailing:

     MIME::Lite->send('sendmail');

If you get ``X-Authentication-Warning'' headers from this, you can forgodiddling with the envelope by instead specifying:

     MIME::Lite->send('sendmail', SetSender=>0);

And, if you're not on a Unix system, or if you'd just rather send mailsome other way, there's always SMTP, which these days probably requiresauthentication so you probably need to say

     MIME::Lite->send('smtp', "smtp.myisp.net",        AuthUser=>"YourName",AuthPass=>"YourPass" );

Or you can set up your own subroutine to call.In any case, check out the send() method. 

WARNINGS

 

Good-vs-bad email addresses with send_by_smtp()

If using send_by_smtp(), be aware that unless youexplicitly provide the email addresses to send to and from you will beforcing MIME::Lite to extract email addresses out of a possible listprovided in the "To:", "Cc:", and "Bcc:" fields. This is trickystuff, and as such only the following sorts of addresses will workreliably:

    username    full.nameAATTsome.host.com    "Name, Full" <full.nameAATTsome.host.com>

Disclaimer:MIME::Lite was never intended to be a Mail User Agent, so pleasedon't expect a full implementation of RFC-822. Restrict yourself tothe common forms of Internet addresses described herein, and you shouldbe fine. If this is not feasible, then consider using MIME::Liteto prepare your message only, and using Net::SMTP explicitly tosend your message.

Note:As of MIME::Lite v3.02 the mail name extraction routines have beenbeefed up considerably. Furthermore if Mail::Address if provided thenname extraction is done using that. Accordingly the above advice is nowless true than it once was. Funky email names should work properlynow. However the disclaimer remains. Patches welcome. :-) 

Formatting of headers delayed until print()

This class treats a MIME header in the most abstract sense,as being a collection of high-level attributes. The actualRFC-822-style header fields are not constructed until it's timeto actually print the darn thing. 

Encoding of data delayed until print()

When you specify message bodies(in build() or attach()) ---whether by FH, Data, or Path --- be warned that we don'tattempt to open files, read filehandles, or encode the data untilprint() is invoked.

In the past, this created some confusion for users of sendmailwho gave the wrong path to an attachment body, since enough ofthe print() would succeed to get the initial part of the message out.Nowadays, $AUTO_VERIFY is used to spot-check the Paths given beforethe mail facility is employed. A whisker slower, but tons safer.

Note that if you give a message body via FH, and try to print()a message twice, the second print() will not do the right thingunless you explicitly rewind the filehandle.

You can get past these difficulties by using the ReadNow option,provided that you have enough memory to handle your messages. 

MIME attributes are separate from header fields!

Important: the MIME attributes are stored and manipulated separatelyfrom the message header fields; when it comes time to print theheader out, any explicitly-given header fields override the ones thatwould be created from the MIME attributes. That means that this:

    ### DANGER ### DANGER ### DANGER ### DANGER ### DANGER ###    $msg->add("Content-type", "text/html; charset=US-ASCII");

will set the exact "Content-type" field in the header I write,regardless of what the actual MIME attributes are.

This feature is for experienced users only, as an escape hatch in casethe code that normally formats MIME header fields isn't doing whatyou need. And, like any escape hatch, it's got an alarm on it:MIME::Lite will warn you if you attempt to "set()" or "replace()"any MIME header field. Use "attr()" instead. 

Beware of lines consisting of a single dot

Julian Haight noted that MIME::Lite allows you to compose messageswith lines in the body consisting of a single ``.''.This is true: it should be completely harmless so long as ``sendmail''is used with the -oi option (see ``Cheap and easy mailing'').

However, I don't know if using Net::SMTP to transfer such a messageis equally safe. Feedback is welcomed.

My perspective: I don't want to magically diddle with a user'smessage unless absolutely positively necessary.Some users may want to send files with ``.'' alone on a line;my well-meaning tinkering could seriously harm them. 

Infinite loops may mean tainted data!

Stefan Sautter noticed a bug in 2.106 where a m//gc match wasfailing due to tainted data, leading to an infinite loop insideMIME::Lite.

I am attempting to correct for this, but be advised that my fix willsilently untaint the data (given the context in which the problemoccurs, this should be benign: I've labelled the source code withUNTAINT comments for the curious).

So: don't depend on taint-checking to save you from outputtingtainted data in a message. 

Don't tweak the global configuration

Global configuration variables are bad, and should go away.Until they do, please follow the hints with each settingon how not to change it. 

A MIME PRIMER

 

Content types

The ``Type'' parameter of "build()" is a content type.This is the actual type of data you are sending.Generally this is a string of the form "majortype/minortype".

Here are the major MIME types.A more-comprehensive listing may be found in RFC-2046.

application
Data which does not fit in any of the other categories, particularlydata to be processed by some type of application program."application/octet-stream", "application/gzip", "application/postscript"...
audio
Audio data."audio/basic"...
image
Graphics data."image/gif", "image/jpeg"...
message
A message, usually another mail or MIME message."message/rfc822"...
multipart
A message containing other messages."multipart/mixed", "multipart/alternative"...
text
Textual data, meant for humans to read."text/plain", "text/html"...
video
Video or video+audio data."video/mpeg"...
 

Content transfer encodings

The ``Encoding'' parameter of "build()".This is how the message body is packaged up for safe transit.

Here are the 5 major MIME encodings.A more-comprehensive listing may be found in RFC-2045.

7bit
Basically, no real encoding is done. However, this label guarantees that no8-bit characters are present, and that lines do not exceed 1000 charactersin length.
8bit
Basically, no real encoding is done. The message might contain 8-bitcharacters, but this encoding guarantees that lines do not exceed 1000characters in length.
binary
No encoding is done at all. Message might contain 8-bit characters,and lines might be longer than 1000 characters long.

The most liberal, and the least likely to get through mail gateways.Use sparingly, or (better yet) not at all.

base64
Like ``uuencode'', but very well-defined. This is how you should sendessentially binary information (tar files, GIFs, JPEGs, etc.).
quoted-printable
Useful for encoding messages which are textual in nature, yet which containnon-ASCII characters (e.g., Latin-1, Latin-2, or any other 8-bit alphabet).
 

HELPER MODULES

MIME::Lite works nicely with other certain other modules if they are present.Good to have installed are the latest MIME::Types,Mail::Address, MIME::Base64,MIME::QuotedPrint, and Net::SMTP.Email::Date::Format is strictly required.

If they aren't present then some functionality won't work, and other featureswont be as efficient or up to date as they could be. Nevertheless they are optionalextras. 

BUNDLED GOODIES

MIME::Lite comes with a number of extra files in the distribution bundle.This includes examples, and utility modules that you can use to get yourselfstarted with the module.

The ./examples directory contains a number of snippets in preparedform, generally they are documented, but they should be easy to understand.

The ./contrib directory contains a companion/tool modules that come bundledwith MIME::Lite, they don't get installed by default. Please review the PODthey come with. 

BUGS

The whole reason that version 3.0 was released was to ensure that MIME::Lite isup to date and patched. If you find an issue please report it.

As far as I know MIME::Lite doesn't currently have any serious bugs, but myusage is hardly comprehensive.

Having said that there are a number of open issues for me, mostly caused by theprogress in the community as whole since Eryq last released. The tests arebased around an interesting but non standard test framework. I'd like to changeit over to u

 
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